EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON MIGRATION
Globalisation is a term which encompasses narrowing down of the interconnection of countries globally. Although, it engrosses the economy, politics, culture, society and environment, actually it also involves the technology, production, development, communication and the international situations globally. Globalisation has been widely discussed by different philosophers and each takes its own approach and reaches different conclusions. Overall, three general positions about ‘globalization’ by Held & et al (1999: 3-10), approach were found: the modernists, the transformalists, and lastly the critics. Firstly, the modernists think it as new trend (Harvey, 1995: 2), the actual wave of modern world system (Wallerstein, 1994: 16), and as it is characterised by being global and international instead regional and imperial (Alexander, ibid: 95). Secondly, the transformalists have three groups of defining globalisation; the first group refer it with the alteration in the political positions what Held & et al (1999) have called the hyperglobalists (Ohmae, 1995), this also emphasis on the transformation of economics with the disappearance of the national state as the natural consequence of the process through networks of production, trade and finance (Held et al. 1999: 3). On the other, the other group of transformalists recognise ‘globalization’ as a new challenge to act as a force behind the economic changes that is shaping societies in order to transform them (Ibid: 7; Borja & Castells, 1997, Sassen 1996). The third group assume globalization as transformation of economic and political organisation through technological advancement. Thirdly, the more controversial approach is critics; here also three groups of thoughts. Firstly, Thompson (1999) define ‘globalization’ as a myth, secondly, a way to solve contradictions between the ‘global’ and the ‘local’ (Robertson, 1995, 27). Lastly, “inextricably linked with the movements of capital, commodities, people and cultural imaginations and practices” (Brah, A, et. al. 1999: 3). Overall, the above discussion could be summarized within these main topics that are multinational companies, trade, finance flows, communications networks, international migrations, culture and global impacts on environmental changes which are moving and defining the process at the international scale. After studying globalization in detail there is a crucial need to study its effects, as it leads to the global economic restructuring and global communication technology in both developed and developing countries. Although resulting in unemployment, wage decline or job insecurity in dominant market economies, actually accelerating international migration globally. Before we discuss the effects of globalisation on migration in detail, we should first discuss migration. Migration is the movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. It is the physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. People who migrate are called migrants or, more specifically, emigrants, immigrants, or settlers, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective. According to the International Organization for Migration's World Migration Report 2010, the number of international migrants was estimated at 214 million in 2010. If this number continues to grow at the same pace as during the last 20 years, it could reach 405 million by 2050. The inter-connections between globalisation and migration make us think about: • Scale (internal or international?)
• Consequences (for whom? what type?)
• Complexity (there are elites to consider, as well as poor migrants) • Critical thinking (do we see ‘exporting’ or ‘re-writing’ and ‘re-imagining’ of cultures?) • An unfair world (when the rich can move about more easily) • Citizenship (are we global...
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