Internationalisation refers to the significant increase in relations between countries. Increases in economic trade and political relations between countries have led to increased interdependency between countries, especially on an economic level. There has also been increased movement of people, capital, and ideas between countries. International relations between countries have always existed, but in today's globalised world, these relations have become more important and more significant than ever before. Liberalisation refers to the loosening of government restrictions on movements between countries. It is easier for individuals to move between countries, and also for money and capital to move between countries.
The main component of liberalisation has been economic. There have been increasing commitments on the part of nations to adopt free trade policies and allow the free movement of capital between states. There have been significant reductions in tariffs and on foreign exchange restrictions. Capitalism has been adopted on a global level with companies competing against companies in other countries, and the increased presence of multinational corporations in many countries. Universalisation refers to an increasing homogeniety across countries. Due to economic liberalisation and the opening up of markets to the world, the same products can be found in different countries and multinational corporations can exist in many different countries at the same time. It is the process of spreading a variety of goods, services, and ideas to all parts of the world. Countries are adopting similar policies of economic liberalisation, and increased freedom of movement of people and capital between countries.
Westernisation is a concept often associated with universalisation and it refers to the spread of western ideas and western culture to the rest of the world. These include industrial capitalism, individualism, and liberal democratic forms of government. These ideas often conflict with traditional cultures and often destroy or alter the values of these cultures. For example, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund have imposed structural adjustment programs on developing countries. These programs have a western agenda of economic liberalisation and liberal democratic government.
Deterritorialisation refers to a reduced significance of borders between nation states. This is due in large part to technological improvements that allow rapid movement across countries around the world. A country's location is not as important as it used to be. World domination no longer exists in the form of direct colonisation of another territory, but instead exists in the form of multinational corporations and economic dominance of other countries. Globalisation encompasses all these different aspects, but the degree to which these aspects are significant and the extent to which these aspects exist are highly debateable. I shall now examine what the impact of globalisation is on the different sectors of the population. Who are the winners and who are the losers in this process of globalisation?
I will first examine the economic impact of Globalisation. Globalisation has within it primarily neoliberal economic policies. These include the reduction of trade barriers, the free flow of capital across nations, and a free market...