MODELING THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES
CASE STUDY: ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN IN COLORADO
There is mounting evidence that amount of carbon dioxide is being increased which can lead to changing the global climate drastically during this century. Climate change can have important effect on the water resources and water demand like urban and agriculture uses. The effects of climate change have been explored in the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado which is one of the major rivers in Colorado that provides water for 650,000 people a year and irrigates around 280,600 acres of agriculture areas. The aim of this research is to project precipitation and temperature in smaller temporal and spatial scale by MAGICC/SCENGEN tool and model the impact of climate change on the water resources by water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software to provide results for the water managers and policy makers. Two climate scenarios (A2 and B2) and a 550 ppm policy were used to project future temperature and precipitation in the Arkansas River Basin for the period of 2013 to 2040. Based on the results from the two climate scenarios, a warmer and drier climate is anticipated for the region. Three adaptation scenarios (new irrigation technology scenario, new irrigation technology along with crop change scenario, and new irrigation technology along with reducing crop area scenario) were analyzed to consider their effects to mitigate the negative impact of climate change in the Arkansas River Basin.. This indicates that globe warming is a potentially very serious problem for water management in the Arkansas River Basin. he Greenhouse Effect refers to a naturally occurring phenomenon that is responsible for maintaining a temperature that supports life on earth. However, this is often confused with the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect occurs because of the trapping of heat reflected from the earth's surface by certain gases in the atmosphere. Without the Greenhouse Effect, life on earth as we know it would be impossible. The Greenhouse Effect in itself is not intrinsically bad. In fact, it is a feature necessary to support life. Imagine that 100 units of solar energy are being beamed from the sun to the earth. Because of its nature, this is termed short-wave radiation, and it has the ability to penetrate the atmosphere. Although 42 percent is either absorbed en route by ozone, water vapor, and dust, or reflected from clouds, etc. A further 9 percent is reflected from the earth's surface. Nevertheless 49 percent of the energy is estimated to be absorbed by the earth's surface. However, the earth's surface re-radiates energy outwards through the atmosphere, but it does so in much longer infrared wavelengths which have much greater difficulty to penetrate the atmosphere on the return journey. Much of this re-radiated energy is subjected to back-radiation from the greenhouse gases which trap the outgoing heat and retransmit this back to the earth's surface. The total balance is further complicated by the effects of evapotranspiration from the earth's forests and flora, making up a delicate and complicated balance. In this sense the greenhouse gases play an important and positive role in ensuring that temperatures on earth sustain life, as we know it, otherwise the earth would be a cold and miserable place. What is the subject of concern is that this positive role may now be affected by human practices and practices through the years, which just might be throwing this delicate mechanism off balance by causing more back-radiation from the atmosphere. The end result would be warmer global surface temperatures. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect is a different matter altogether and occurs when excessive amounts of greenhouse gases [carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, chlorofluorocarbons] are placed in the atmosphere often through human...