Given That Disasters Create Opportunities for Active Learning - Why Do They

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University of Leicester
MSc. in Risk, Crisis & Disaster Management
Module 4 - Case Studies
Essay "Given that disasters create opportunities for active learning - why do they repeat?

Michael Lübke
Student No.: 109023384
Intake: September 2010

MODULE 4 - CASE STUDIES !1 MICHAEL LÜBKE

Institute of Lifelong Learning
University of Leicester

Plagiarism Declaration

This form must be completed, signed and submitted with each assessment. The Department cannot accept your work unless it is accompanied by this form.

Name: Michael Lübke

Student Ref No: 109023384

Intake: September 2010

Title of Course: Master of Science in Risk, Crisis and Disaster Management
Module: Module 4 - Case Studies

Full title of work:
“Given that disasters create opportunities for active learning- why do they repeat?”

Numbers of words
(between 3,000 – 4,000 for essays and between 15,000 - 20,000 for dissertations): 3.571 I confirm that I have read and understood the Department’s instructions on the presentation of written work and the University’s Regulation on Academic Dishonesty and I declare that the submission attached to this statement and presented to the University of Leicester for assessment complies with University requirements and is my own work.

Signed:

Date: 23-03-2012

MODULE 4 - CASE STUDIES

!2

MICHAEL LÜBKE

Module 4 - Case Studies
"Given that disasters create opportunities for active learning - why do they repeat?" Introduction
"We should attempt to gain as great an understanding as possible from [past event]... . The information should be used as effectively as possible so that the benefits gained are maximised and that any further unnecessary 'costs' in the form of future disasters are kept to a minimum." (Toft & Reynolds, 1994: 14) This paper will discuss the feasibility and applicability of isomorphism and active learning through disasters. The discussion will begin with the definition of keywords such as "disaster","hindsight", "foresight", "isomorphism" and "active learning" itsself. The main focus will lie on the sections "hindsight" and "foresight". The requirements for active learning will be analysed to be able to create hindsight as an oppurtunity to avoid disasters in the future. Foresight in combination with isomorphism will be discussed as a result of hindsight and will lead to the process of active learning. Then a few examples of active and passiv learning will be presented to underline the importance of proper management structures to allow hind- and foresight. In the end the question "why do they (disasters) repeat?" will be answered.

Definition of keywords
This passage of this paper is meant to clarify the different terms, which will be used within this essay. The most important and yet most diffcult to define is the term "disaster". The word is commonly used in public, as "something bad has happened". Yet in academic literature the term "disaster" is often described in different ways. "The vast number of definitions of "disaster" as an event (Fritz 1961, p. 655) or as an acting entity (Kreps 1993, p. 6) may be mistaken as consensus. But it should be seen as the outcome of a scientific tradition that is "concentrated in time and space"." (Dombrowsky, 1995: 241) "With all that in mind, a strange conclusion may be drawn: the term "disaster" has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction. But it has almost no importance for the activities carried out under the label of a disastrous "event"." (Dombrowsky, 1995: 243) MODULE 4 - CASE STUDIES !3 MICHAEL LÜBKE

"Where problems use symbolic or verbal variables, have vague, non-quantifiable goals and lack available routines for their solution, relying instead on ad hoc procedures, a variable disjunction of information is more likely to be...
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