Geography

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Geography 1: Places and Landscapes in a Changing World
Sir Euca Ramos/WFR
Group 8: Badiong, Mangui-ob, Tirthdas
Population Dynamics and Processes, Demographic Transition Theory, and Population Debates and Policies 1. Population Dynamics & Processes
* Evaluation of a different understanding of population growth and change * 2 significant factors
* Fertility: birth rates
* Mortality: death rates

* Birth, or Fertility, Rates
* Crude birth rate (CBR)
* The ratio of the number of lives births in a single year for every thousand people in the population. * Measures the birth rate in terms of the total population and not with respect to a particular age specific group or cohort * Differences exist in specific groups especially at age and sex cohorts at their reproductive peaks * Economic development important factor in shaping the CBR as well as other important influences such as : * The demographic structure of the population

* Women’s educational achievement
* Religion
* Social customs
* Diet and health
* Politics and civil unrest
* The availability of birth control methods is also important to a country’s birth rate * Total fertility rate (TFR)
* “A measure of the average number of children a woman will have throughout the years that demographers have identified as her child bearing years.” * “A more predictive measure that attempts to portray what birth rates will be among a particular cohort of women over time” * A TFR slightly higher than 2 has achieve replacement-level fertility * Doubling time

* “a measure of how long it will take the population of an area to grow twice its current size.”

* The Baby Boom and the Aging of the Population
* Babies born between 1946 an 1964 in the United States of America are considered to be the baby boom generation * They have been described as “ one of the most powerful and enduring demographic influences on this nation” * Studying the baby boom generation is a way of understanding the complex factors that shape demographic change * Can only be explained by looking at the different factors * Demographic Factors:

* The baby boom cannot be seen as a direct or indirect result of the end of the war * Marriages increased after WWII; but the rise in birth rates is only from 1946 to 1947 * 1950-birth rates had fallen slightly

* 1951 birthrates rose again until 1964

* Political and economic factors
* After the WWII, there was an expansion in the U.S economy * There were important transformations in transportation and technology * Created programs for returning veterans that helped them start marriage life or improve their economic status by attending college * The construction of the interstate highway system helped to fuel suburnization * Higher demand for labor due to the growing economy * The Aging Population

* The baby boom did not only occur in the United States but also in core countries and some periphery countries * “The most fundamental demographic transformation of the twenty-first century is the aging of the population” * There will be fewer working age people to support the needs of the aging population * Older and smaller population pose very serious problems such as * Employment

* Economic growth
* Health care
* Pensions
* Social support services
* Increasing immigration opportunities for young immigrants from countries who have a rapid population growths...
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