Genetic Mutation

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In biology, term- mutation has been described as changes to the base pair sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Mutations can be caused by: copying errors in the genetic material during cell division, by exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, chemical mutagens, or viruses, or can occur deliberately under cellular control during processes such as hypermutation. In multicellular organisms, mutations can be subdivided into germ line mutations, which can be passed on to descendants, and somatic mutations, which cannot be transmitted to descendants in animals. Plants sometimes can transmit somatic mutations to their descendants asexually or sexually (in case when flower buds develop in somatically mutated part of plant). A new mutation that was not inherited from either parent is called a de novo mutation. For example, a butterfly may produce offspring with a new mutation. Many times new mutations are harmful; a new mutation might change the color of one of the butterfly's offspring, making it harder (or easier) for predators to see. If this color change is an advantage, the chances of this butterfly surviving and producing its own offspring are a little better, and over time the number of butterflies with this mutation may form a larger percentage of the population. Alterations in human chromosomes or the deletion of an important gene product are often due to a mutation, which can spring an abundant strand of genetic mutations and improper coding. Mutations can spring from deletion, duplication or inversion of a chromosome. This improper deletion is the factor that leads to complications and ultimately genetic disorders. Turner Syndrome and Cat-cry Syndrome are both alterations of chromosome structure due to deletion. In Turner Syndrome, there is a missing X chromosome and in the Cat-cry Syndrome chromosome-18 has been lost or deleted. Other genetic disorders that give rise to discussion are point...
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