General Psychology - Learning

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3/1/2013

LEARNING ABOUT STIMULI LEARNING
• Habituation is a form of adaptive learning; organisms stop paying attention to stimuli that are often repeated and that don't signal any important environmental events. • According to the opponent-process theory, habituation to repeated stimuli causes two processes.

MEMBERS: ARJINDER SINGH ROAR (SC-KL-00037774) LEY SHAHRWIND A/L AGILAN (SC-KL-00040703) LORETTA AMELIA BARERO PADUA (SC-KL-00040935) SANJIV A/L M.RAJESWARAN (SC-KL-00040927)

THE 2 PROCESSES
• The first, known as the a-process, is an almost reflexive increase or decrease in some response. • The second, called the b-process, causes an opposite or opposing response. • The opponent-process theory has been used to explain drug-tolerance development.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

PAVLOV’S DISCOVERY

PAVLOV EXPERIMENT PHASES
• During phase 1 - a natural reflex and neutral stimulus was established • In phase 2 - unconditional stimulus was paired with a conditioned stimulus • In phase 3 - a conditional stimulus was used to obtain a conditional response

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CONDITIONED RESPONSES OVERTIME
• Extinction-what if the meat powder (UCS) is no longer given to the dog? • The conditioned response(salivation) will gradually disappear. • However if UCS is paired with the CS (bell sound) condition response will appear • Spontaneous recovery-temporary reappearance of CR after extinction

STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
• Stimuli that is similar but not identical the conditioned stimulus(bell sound) which elicit the response.

STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

SIGNALING OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS
• Timing

• Balances stimulus generalization • Attention • Predictability

APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
• Phobias- fears of objects or situations that are not harmful.

INSTRUMENTAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING

• Predicting Alzheimer’s Disease- A puff of air directed at your eye is an UCS that causes you to blink.

SKINNER BOX

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• According to the law of effects, if a response is made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely to be made the next time. • Responses that are “instrumental” - help to produce some rewarding or desired effect • Thorndike called this learning instrumental conditioning but Skinner emphasized on how an organism learns to "operate on" its environment

BASIC COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING
BASIC COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING

OPERANTS AND REINFORCERS

ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING

DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULI AND STIMULUS CONTROL

OPERANTS AND REINFORCERS
• An operant is a behavioral response that has some effect on an organism’s environment • In operant conditioning people learn the relationship between the operants and their consequences. • A reinforcers is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavioral response will occur again. There are Two types of reinforcers.

TYPES OF REINFORCERS
• Positive reinforcers are positive stimuli that act like rewards. • Negative reinforcers are negative stimuli that, once removed, encourage or reinforce behavior.

ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING
• Negative reinforcements are used in escape and avoidance conditioning. • In escape conditioning, an organism learns behaviors that lead to an escape from an unpleasant situation. • In avoidance conditioning, an organism learns behaviors that allow it to completely avoid an unpleasant situation. This is a very strong condition and may prevent an organism from learning new behaviors.

DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULI AND STIMULUS CONTROL
• Discriminative stimuli signal to an organism that reinforcement is available if a certain response is made. • This response is said to be under stimulus control. Stimulus generalization also occurs in operant conditioning.

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FORMING AND STRENGTHENING OPERANT BEHAVIOR
Delay and Size of Reinforcement.

• Shaping - Creation of new responses never before...
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