B). Operant conditioning: When a teacher rewards good behavior with a token, and students can exchange these tokens for extra rewards. Classical conditioning: In animal training, a trainer might utilize classical conditioning by repeatedly pairing the sound of a clicker with the taste of food. Eventually, the sound of the clicker alone will begin to produce the same response that the taste of food would. Observational learning: When you learn how to open a lock with a key by watching your parents or others around you do it. C). If the farmer wants the cows to learn to come to a new feeding station at the sound of his truck’s horn, he can do this by shaping. He can gradually reward the cows as they move closer to the new feeding station and then finally requiring the cows to reach the new station before rewarding them. Also, the farmer could use negative reinforcement to reduce the cow’s behavior of going to the old feeding station by whipping the cow or not allowing them to eat that day. QUESTION 2
Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response. Operant conditioning focuses on using either rewards or punishment to strengthen or reduce a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary...
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