The concept of transformational leadership was initially introduced by leadership expert and presidential biographer James MacGregor Burns. According to Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when “leaders and followers make each other to advance to a higher level of moral and motivation." Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions and motivations to work towards common goals. Later, researcher Bernard M. Bass expanded upon Burns original ideas to develop what is today referred to as Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory.2 According to Bass, transformational leadership can be defined based on the impact that it has on followers. Transformational leaders, Bass suggested, garner trust, respect and admiration from their followers. Charismatic Leadership
The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him." Charismatic authority is one of three forms of authority laid out in Weber's tripartite classification of authority, the other two being traditional authority and rational-legal authority. Analysis
Gandhi is most famous for his satyagraha ideology which entailed a nonviolent strategy of leading. Satyagraha is the instrument of silent and nonviolent protest against certain unjust overt or covert actions by the authority. He reached his goals in South Africa and India without violence but with iron determination. Mohandas Gandhi was an advocate of
(a) independence for India from Great Britain
(b) Hindu–Muslim unity
(c) the end of Untouchability.
As a preacher and practitioner of nonviolence, best described as passive resistance through soul force instead of active...