Functional Group Analysis

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Functional Group Analysis: Carbonyl Compounds, Oxidizable Carbonyl Compounds and Acidic Compounds

Christian Paul L. Ramos
Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines

Date Performed: August 24, 2012; Date Submitted: September 19, 2012

Results and Discussion

Aldehydes and ketones both contain the carbonyl group – a group in which a carbon atom has a double bond to oxygen.

The carbonyl group in aldehydes is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom, and in ketones it is bonded to two carbon atoms. The general formula for an aldehyde is

And the general formula for a ketone is

Aldehydes and ketones have a trigonal planar arrangement of groups around the carbonyl carbon atom. The carbon atom is sp2 hybridized,

On the other hand, the acidic compounds are the carboxylic acids and the phenols. The carboxylic acids have the general formula of

The functional group,

is called the carboxyl group (carbonyl + hydroxyl).

Further, phenols are commonly known carbolic acids.

The presence of the hydroxyl groups in the molecules of phenols means that phenols are like alcohols in being able to form strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This hydrogen bonding causes phenols to be associated and, therefore, to have higher boiling points than hydrocarbons of the same molecular weight. Thus, phenols have a modest solubility in water.

Although phenols are structurally similar to alcohols, they are much stronger acids, however they are weaker acids compared to carboxylic acids.
In the experiment, the following samples of aldehydes are used, 1) Benzaldehyde

It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde. It is employed to confer almond flavor. It is used chiefly as a precursor to other organic compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals to plastic derivatives.

2) Formaldehyde

It is the simplest form of aldehyde, also called methanal. It is used in low concentrations for the process C-41...
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