Professor Katherine Pang
School of Professional Programs
July 5, 2012
Formal organizational theory can be dated, originated in the late nineteenth century. Some of the earlier citing of organization theory were developed and conducted from military forces that were highly structured and arranged by rigidly structured ecclesiastical organizations ( Milakovich &Gordon). Hierarchy was founded throughout contemporary organizations, derived form a religious and military background. Hierarchy is defined as a characteristic of formal bureaucratic organizations; a clear vertical chain of command in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it; one of the most common features of governmental and other bureaucratic organizations. The most relevant form of bureaucracy was developed by Max Weber a German Sociologist, during the late nineteenth century, however it was not until 1940’s that his work was translated into English (Milakovich &Gordon). Max Weber bureaucratic model was identified and structured by five key elements: 1. Division of labor and functional specialization-labor is separated according to type and purpose, with clear areas of jurisdiction marked out for each working unit and emphasis on elimination of over lapping and duplication of functions;(2) Hierarchy-A clear vertical chain of command in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it;(3)Formal framework of rules and procedures-designed to ensure stability, predictability, and impersonality in bureaucratic operations(and thus equal treatment for all who deal with the organization), as well as reliability of performance;(4) Maintenance of flies and other records-ensure that actions taken are both appropriate to the situation and consistent with past actions in similar circumstances;(5) Professionalization-employees are(a)...