University of Bahrain
College of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture
Fluid Mechanics
CENG231

Osborne Reynolds Demonstration

Sayed abbas Mohamed
20104762
03

1. Objective:
To reproduce the classical experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition.

2. Theory:

Reynolds number, Re is the internationally recognized criterion denoting fluid flow condition. “ Re = 4Q/ πvd ”
Osborn Reynolds determined that values of Re could be assigned to define the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

* Fill the reservoir with dye, position the apparatus on the bench and connect the inlet pipe to the bench feed. Lower the dye injector until it is just above the bell moth inlet. Close the control valve. Open bench inlet valve and slowly fill the head tank to the overflow level, then close the inlet valve .open and close flow control valve to admit water to the flow visualization pipe. Allow the apparatus to stand at least ten minutes before proceeding. Measure the temperature of the water.

* Open the inlet valve slightly until water trickles from the outlet pipe. Fractionally open the control valve and adjust dye control valve until slow flow with dye indication is achieved .measure and note the flow rate.

* Repeat for increasing flow rates by progressively opening the flow control valve. Take a specific measurement of flow rate at the critical condition.

* Repeat the procedure for decreasing flow rates, taking a specific measurement of flow at the critical condition.

5. Results & Calculation:

Water Temp. = 21 C Water density = 998.2 kg /m3 Molecular viscosity = 0.00085 kg /m.s...

...FluidMechanics
Laboratory 2
Report
Robby Joseph
14103508
1.0 Introduction
This experiment was undertaken for the study of flow in pipes and the factors that affect it in both laminar and turbulent regimes. The transitional regime between laminar and turbulent flow will also be studied. The experiment was done using a pipe with a known diameter, and water was pumped in from a tank. Throughout the process, measurements of the quantity of water and time were taken as well as the hydraulic gradient. With these different parameters, the flow rate, Reynolds number and friction factor were able to be calculated for each test for water and mercury. The main purpose of the process was to analyse and identify the regions of laminar flow, and turbulent flow, as well as the transitional region in between. These values enable the calculation of the friction factor of the pipes for specific flow rates.
2.0 Background
The viscosity (µ) in the pipe flow of a fluid produces friction (shear stress) between lumps of fluid as they pass each other. This causes the fluid to cling to the boundary in the flow field.
Reynolds number (Re) is the ratio of fluid momentum to viscous forces.
Re=ρVDμ
This ratio allows the flow of a fluid to be distinguished; this flow can either be laminar, turbulent or transitional.
Laminar flow only occurs when the flow of a...

...LabReport
Name:
Yujia Liu
Student Number:
420052825
Date Submitted:
02/04/2013
Flow Table and Velocity Patterns
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Academic Honesty Declaration
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...FluidMechanicLab Layout
Name Of Apparatus
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Door Door Bernoulli’s Theorem White Board Green Board Students Chairs Teacher Table Turbine Service Unit Axial Fan Centrifugal Fan Cavitations Demonstration Vin Tunnel Fluid Particle System Centrifugal Pump (Computer Control) Water Hammering Losses in Pipes Multi Pumps ( Computer Control ) Nozzle Performance Unit Losses in Bends Flow Meter Demonstration Orifice And Free Jet Flow Orifice Discharge Osborne-Reynolds Impact Of Jet Flow Visualization in Channel Free And Force Vortices Metacentric Height Pelton Turbine Series and Parallel Pumps Black Board
FLUIDMECHANICS-I
HYDRAULIC BENCH-FME 00
1.OBJECTIVE To study the Hydraulic Bench
OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION-FME 06
1.OBJECTIVE To observe laminar, transition and turbulent pipe flow. 2.OBJECTIVE Study of the velocity profile, reproducing the Osborne-Reynolds’s experiment 3.OBJECTIVE To calculate Reynolds’s number.
IMPACT OF JECT-FME 01
1.OBJECTIVE To investigate the reaction force produced by the change in momentum of a fluid flow
ENERGY LOSSES IN BENDS-FME 05
1. OBJECTIVE To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve
ORIFICE AND FREE JET FLOW-FME 17
1....

...Scope………………………………………………………………………………………3
Theory review……………………………………………………………………………………..3
Design of report…………………………………………………………………………………...5
Procedures…………………………………………………………………………………………5
Results……………………………………………………………………………………………..6
Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………6
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………...7
Reference……………………………………………………………………………………….....7
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………..7
ABSTRACT
This experiment introduces the use of dimensionless analysis and conventionally analytical method to survey the performance of centrifugal pump. The end of this experiment points out the benefit of using the “new” method to the conventional in most practical problem, especially in the survey of turbo-machine. Also, through this experiment, students know some basic indexes to assess the efficiency of pumps used. We will that for the specific fan conducting this experiment, the best efficiency point occurs at CQ = 0.2, the specific speed NS ~1.23.
INTRODUCTION
Background
A fan is a turbo-machine in which work is done to increase the total pressure of the fluid leaving the device. This is achieved by a rotor or impeller, which is driven by an external source of power to move a row of blades so as to impart energy to the fluid.
A centrifugal fan, the focus of this experiment, consists basically of three components: an air inlet duct, an impeller and a volute casing. The inlet...

...value of the loss coefficients can be used (to be verified). 4 The elevation difference between the free surfaces of the tank and the river remains constant. 5 The effect of the kinetic energy correction factor is negligible, = 1. Properties The density and dynamic viscosity of water at 70 F are 6.556 10-4 lbm/ft s. The roughness of galvanized iron pipe is = 0.0005 ft. = 62.30 lbm/ft3 and = 2.360 lbm/ft h =
Analysis The piping system involves 125 ft of 5-in diameter piping, an entrance with negligible loses, 3 standard flanged 90 smooth elbows (KL = 0.3 each), and a sharp-edged exit (KL = 1.0). We choose points 1 and 2 at the free surfaces of the river and the tank, respectively. We note that the fluid at both points is open to the atmosphere (and thus P1 = P2 = Patm), and the fluid velocity is 6 ft/s at point 1 and zero at point 2 (V1 = 6 ft/s and V2 =0). We take the free surface of the river as the reference level (z1 = 0). Then the energy equation for a control volume between these two points simplifies to
P1 g
1
V12 2g
z1
h pump, u
P2 g
2
V 22 2g
z2
h turbine, e
hL
1
V12 2g
h pump, u
z2
hL
where
1
= 1 and
V2 L h L h L ,total h L ,major h L ,minor f KL 2 D 2g since the diameter of the piping system is constant. The average velocity in the pipe and the Reynolds number are V Re V Ac VD V D2 / 4 1.5 ft 3 /s (5 / 12 ft) 2 / 4
3
2
5 in 125 ft 12 ft
Water tank
11.0 ft/s
1...

...1. Using diagrams and/or graphs, explain the following terms:
a. Pressure Head
pressure head [′presh·ər ‚hed]
(fluidmechanics)
Also known as head.
The height of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure.
The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it.
b. Total Discharge Head
Total discharge head refers to the actual physical difference in height between the liquid level in the pit and the highest point of the discharge pipe or water level in the outlet.
c. NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). The measurement of liquid pressure at the pump end of the suction system, including the design of the pump.
d. Suction Lift
Pump Performance Curve
The pump characteristic is normally described graphically by the manufacturer as a pump performance curve. The pump curve describes the relation between flow rate and head for the actual pump. Other important information for proper pump selection is also included – efficiency curves, NPSHr curve, pump curves for several impeller diameters and different speeds, and power consumption.
Increasing the impeller diameter or speed increases the head and flow rate capacity - and the pump curve moves upwards.
The head capacity can be increased by connecting two or more pumps in series, or the flow rate capacity can be increased by connecting two or more
e. Pump Efficiency
Pump Efficiency
The term pump efficiency is used on all types of...

...pipe. This energy drop is dependent on the wall shear stress (τ) between the fluid and pipe surface. The shear stress of a flow is also dependent on whether the flow is turbulent or laminar. For turbulent flow, the pressure drop is dependent on the roughness of the surface, while in laminar flow, the roughness effects of the wall are negligible. This is due to the fact that in turbulent flow, a thin viscous layer is formed near the pipe surface which causes a loss in energy, while in laminar flow, this viscous layer is non-existent. Causes of friction loss can include the movement of fluid molecules against one another, or against the inside surface of the pipe and bends, kinks or sharp turns in hose or piping.
This experiment allows us to investigate different scenarios of piping, particularly in roughness, geometry and valves. With the many circuits of flow to chose from the student can combine different variations of each to see how the flow responds.
Governing Equations
Basic Head Loss for Strait Pipes
Head loss can be expressed as a function of friction factor:
(eq 1)
Where hf is head loss, L is length, D is diameter of pipe, V is the velocity of the flow and g is gravity.
Flow Rate
The flow rate in a pipe can also be calculated using
(eq 2)
In this case u is used for velocity, Q as volume flow rate and A, cross sectional area of the pipe.
Reynold’s Number
In fluids, the Reynolds number...

...|1. |Name of Course |FluidMechanics |
|2. |Course Code: |SCB 23304 |
|3. |Status: |Discipline Core |
|4. |Level: |Bachelor Degree |
|5. |Revision: |00 |
|6. |Names of Academic Staff: |Khairul Shahril bin Shaffee |
| | |Johan Ihsan Mahmood |
|7. |Rationale for inclusion of the course in the program: |
| |The study of fluidmechanics is essential for a student to becoming a mechanical technologist as this course will equipped the student |
| |with a depth knowledge and understanding of fluid behaviour and mechanism often found in...