ABSTRACT
This report aims to measure the pressure variation and different contributing components of the drag force on a circular cylinder. The devices used in this experiment were a fan, closed-channel venturi-shape pipe, a Pitot tube, circular cylinder with holes of different angles, U-tube manometers and a barometer.

INTRODUCTION
When a fluid is passing through an object, it produces a total force on the object. This force is a combined force of lift and drag forces (Anderson 2007). External flows past objects have been studied extensively because of their many practical applications. For example, airfoils are made into streamline shapes in order to increase the lifts, and at the same time, reducing the aerodynamic drags exerted on the wings. On the other hand, flow past a blunt body, such as a circular cylinder, usually experiences boundary layer separation and very strong flow oscillations in the wake region behind the body (Anderson 2007). In certain Reynolds number range, a periodic flow motion will develop in the wake. In this experiment we will study the pressure variation and different contributing components of the forces on the circular cylinder (Anderson 2007).

METHODOLOGY
In this experiment, circular cylinder with 27 holes was placed behind the Pitot tube. 18 holes were adjusted to 5°, 10°, 15° and so on until 90°, and the next 9 holes were adjusted to 100°, 110° and so on until 180°. All these holes were connected to U-tube manometers which can read the pressure difference between all the holes. Pitot tube was also used to measure the static pressure and the stagnation pressure or usually called the total pressure. Pitot tube was placed in front of the circular cylinder and against flow of fluid which is air in this case. Another device to be used was barometer which is to measure the atmospheric pressure of the room. A fan was placed in front of Pitot tube with Venturi pipe between them to maximise the velocity of the flow. The large...

...Fluid Report 2
In the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation, the assumption of the inviscid and incompressible flow is used. However in the real case, the viscosity cannot be neglect and the density of the flow is not always constant. Thus Bernoulli’s equation is not always correct. For the lab, it is reasonable to assume the flow is inviscid and incompressible. Firstly, the pitot was placed at the center of the flow. The skin friction (effect of viscosity) is inversely proportional to distance. Therefore the effect of viscosity can be neglected in the pitot. Secondly, the speed of the flow is much lower than the speed of sound under the sonic condition. Therefore, the Mach number is low enough to neglect the change of density of the controlled volume and the controlled volume is almost incompressible. That is why we can estimate the velocity of the flow by Bernoulli’s equation and continuity equation.
As a result of the viscosity, the internal flow is constrained by the bounding walls and the effect grows during the entire flow. At the inflow region, the flow is nearly inviscid. After that, the boundary layers are growing along the duct which is called developing profile region. This is because the effect of viscosity is growing. At the centre of the duct, there is an inviscid core flow. When the boundary layers are merged, the flow is fully developed and the velocity is not affected by viscosity anymore. Meanwhile the static pressure decreases due...

...gage pressure. Pgage = Pabs - Patm
The pressure at a point in a fluid has the same magnitude in all directions. (Pressure is a scalar)
Variation of Pressure with Depth
It will come as no surprise to you that pressure in a fluid at rest does not change in the horizontal direction. This can be shown easily by considering a thin horizontal layer of fluid and doing a force balance in any horizontal direction. However, this is not the case in the vertical direction in a gravity field. Pressure in a fluid increases with depth because more fluid rests on deeper layers, and the effect of this “extra weight” on a deeper layer is balanced by an increase in pressure
For a given fluid, the vertical distance \Delta z is sometimes used as a measure of pressure, and it is called the pressure head.
If we take the top of a fluid to be at the free surface of a liquid open to the atmosphere, where the pressure is the atmospheric pressure Patm, then the pressure at a depth h from the free surface is: P = Patm + \rho *gh or Pgage = \rho *gh
Liquids are essentially incompressible substances, and thus the variation of density with depth is negligible. This is also the case for gases when the elevation change is not very large. at great depths such as those encountered in oceans, the change in the density of a liquid can be significant because of the compression by the tremendous...

...f NHYDRAULICS 1 (HYDRODYNAMICS)
SPRING 2005
Part 1. Fluid-Flow Principles
1. Introduction
1.1 Definitions
1.2 Notation and fluid properties
1.3 Hydrostatics
1.4 Fluid dynamics
1.5 Control volumes
1.6 Visualising fluid flow
1.7 Real and ideal fluids
1.8 Laminar and turbulent flow
2. Continuity (mass conservation)
2.1 Flow rate
2.2 The steady continuity equation
2.3 Unsteady continuity equation
3. The Equation of Motion
3.1 Forms of the equation of motion
3.2 Fluid acceleration
3.3 Bernoulli’s equation
3.4 Application to flow measurement
3.5 Other applications (flow through an orifice; tank-emptying)
4. The Momentum Principle
4.1 Steady-flow momentum principle
4.2 Applications (pipe contractions; pipe bends; jets)
5. Energy
5.1 Derivation of Bernoulli’s equation from an energy principle
5.2 Fluid head
5.3 Departures from ideal flow (discharge coefficients; loss coefficients; momentum & energy coefficients)
Part 2. Applications (Separate Notes)
1. Hydraulic Jump
2. Pipe Flow (Dr Lane-Serff)
Recommended Reading
Hamill, 2001, Understanding Hydraulics, 2nd Edition, Palgrave, ISBN 0-333-77906-1
Chadwick, Morfett and Borthwick, 2004, Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental
Engineering, 4th Edition, Spon Press, ISBN 0-415-30609-4
Massey, 1998, Mechanics of Fluids, 7th Edition, (Revised by Ward-Smith, J.), Stanley
Thornes,...

...1. Identify each of the following statements as either true or false. If false, explain why.
(a) Viscosity is a measure of how easily a fluid flows.
(b) Although important, fluids are not essential to many living things.
(c) A meniscus forms when water particles adhere to the sides of their container.
(d) Buoyancy, like water pressure, acts in all directions.
2. Describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density of matter.
3. Use the particle theory to explain the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.
4. Comment on the accuracy of the statement below. Describe some exceptions to the statement if there are any. In general, solids are denser than liquids, and liquids are denser than gases.
5. Use the particle theory to explain why changing the temperature of a fluid can also change its density.
6. The density of a fluid usually decreases as the temperature rises. Explain how the behaviour of water differs from this pattern.
7. What is a hydrometer and what is it used for? Describe how to use a hydrometer.
8. Do hydrometers float higher in liquids that are denser or less dense? Make a Summary At the start of this unit; you created a table with some classmates to activate your knowledge of fluids (what they are, where they are found, how they are used, and some harmful effects of and to fluids). You have also developed a concept map as you worked through the...

...
Experiment 5
Series and Parallel Pump
Objectives
To demonstrate the principle operating characteristics of centrifugal pump in series, parallel or single pump operation.
To determine the pump characteristic curves of pump in series and parallel configuration and single operation.
To determine the pump power.
Overview
A pump can serve to move liquid, as in a cross country pipeline, to lift liquid as from a well or to the top of a tall building; or to put fluid under pressure as in a hydraulic brake. In chemical plants and refineries pumps transfer or circulate oil and a great variety of fluids.
General Start - Up Procedures
Before conducting any experiment, it is necessary to do the following checking to avoid any misuse and malfunction of equipment.
1. Fill sump tank with tap water. Water level can be checked using the viewing window.
2. Check whether the Emergency-Off switch is released.
3. Switch on main power switch.
4. Open flow adjustment valve.
5. Switch on pump.
Experimental Procedures
Experiment 1 : Single Pump
Figure 1: Configuration of a Single Pump
1. Connect the stop-cocks as shown in Fig. 1 (handle parallel to the pipe – valve open, handle perpendicular to the pipe – valve closed).
2. Switch on pump 1 (9) with the main switch on the switchbox (11); pump 2 must remain off!
3. Set the desired volumetric flow rate Q with the drain cock (8); ensure continuous water...

...MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BMM 2533 FLUIDS MECHANICS 1 2013/2014
Assignment 4
DURATION
DEADLINE
th
Friday 6 of December, 2013
1.
3.
5.
NAME &
MATRIC NO.
SECTION
DECLARATION
2.
4.
We hereby declare that the work is entirely our own effort. Under no
circumstances did we allow anyone to copy our work. We understand and
accept that any breach of trust will automatically penalize all parties and
zero mark will be given for the assignment.
MARKS
DISTRIBUTION
100 marks
ANSWER Q4, Q5, Q7, Q8, AND Q13
1. Derive equation for Pitot-Static probe or Pitot-Darcy probe for velocity measurement.
2. Determine velocity of oil inside a pipe flow and measured by Pitot-Static probe if pressure P1-P2 =
50 kPa and S.G. oil is 0.9.
3. Determine velocity of gas inside a pipe flow if water manometer connected to Pitot-Static probe
show 2.5 cm height. Take density of water and air 1000 kg/m3 and 1.25 kg/m3.
4. Determine velocity of water inside a pipe flow if mercury manometer connected to Pitot-Static
probe show 10 cm height. Take density of mercury and water 13600 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3.
5. Describe 5 advantage and disadvantage of orifice and venturi flowmeter.
6. Derive equation for obstruction flowmeters which is connected to a manometer if d is obstruction
opening at point 2, D is diameter of pipe at point 2, ρB is the density of moving fluid, ρM is the
density of manometer fluid, h is height of manometer...