ABE 3-1NOVEMBER 12, 2012
1. Differences between First Language and Second Language | First Language| Second Language|
Definition| any language other than English that a child was exposed to during early development and continues to be exposed to in the home or community| any language learned after the first language or mother tongue | Basis for learning| universal grammar alone| knowledge of the first language also serves as a basis for learning the second language| Learning Process| children spend several years listening to language, babbling, and using telegraphic speech before they can form sentences| in older learners, learning is more rapid and people are able to form sentences within a shorter period of time;Learning in older learners, learners are able to use more metacognitive processes in their learning. They can consciously analyse and manipulate grammatical structures, and they can explicitly describe how language works.| Practice| learners have many chances to practice with native speakers| learners may or may not have the opportunity to practice extensively with native speakers| Acquisition| Almost everyone acquires a first language;happens naturally| not everyone acquires a second language;often requires conscious effort on the part of the learner|
2. Differences Between Second Language and Foreign Language English as a Second Language (ESL or TESL) also refers to specialized approaches to language teaching designed for those whose primary language is not English (Nordquist, English as a Second Language). English as a Second Language corresponds roughly to the Outer Circle described by linguist Braj Kachru in "Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle" (1985). A foreign language is a language that is from a country other than one's native country. Foreign languages are usually learned for the sake...