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  • Topic: IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Alkane
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Richard F. Daley and Sally J. Daley
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Organic
Chemistry
Chapter 2

Introduction to Organic
Nomenclature and Functional
Groups
2.1 Drawing Organic Structures
73
2.2 Alkanes 77
2.3 Structural Isomerism 77
2.4 IUPAC Nomenclature 79
2.5 Naming Alkanes
80
2.6 Naming Cycloalkanes 87
2.7 Naming Complex Alkyl Groups
2.8 Functional Groups
97
2.9 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
2.10 Naming Alkenes, Part II
108
2.11 Arenes 109
2.12 Organohalogens
113
2.13 Using Molecular Formulas
115
Key Ideas from Chapter 2 117

91
100

Organic Chemistry - Ch 2

70

Daley & Daley

Copyright 1996-2005 by Richard F. Daley & Sally J. Daley
All Rights Reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.

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5 July 2005

Organic Chemistry - Ch 2

71

Daley & Daley

Chapter 2

Introduction to Organic
Nomenclature and Functional
Groups
Chapter Outline
2.1

Drawing Organic Structures
Drawing two-dimensional, condensed, and bond-line
structures of organic compounds

2.2

Alkanes
An introduction to alkanes

2.3

Structural Isomerism
A look at compounds with the same molecular formula
but with different structures

2.4

IUPAC Nomenclature
An introduction to the IUPAC rules of nomenclature

2.5

Naming Alkanes
An introduction to the systematic approach to naming
alkanes

2.6

Naming Cycloalkanes
Systematic naming of cycloalkanes

2.7

Naming Complex Alkyl Groups
Systematic and common nomenclature of molecules with
branched side chains

2.8

Functional Groups
A survey of organic functional groups

2.9

Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
Naming hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds

2.10

Naming Alkenes, Part II
Naming cis and trans alkenes

2.11

Arenes
Naming substituted benzenes

2.12

Organohalogens
Naming organic compounds containing one or more
halogens

2.13

Using Molecular Formulas
Gaining information about the structure of a compound
by examination of the molecular formula

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5 July 2005

Organic Chemistry - Ch 2

72

Daley & Daley

Objectives
✔ Know how to draw the structure of an organic molecule
✔ Know how to draw the structure of an alkane from its name or to name an alkane from its structure
✔ Know how to draw and name cycloalkanes
✔ Recognize a functional group
✔ Know how to draw and name alkenes and alkynes
✔ Know how to draw and name alkyl substituted arenes
✔ Know how to name organohalogen compounds

The Naming of Cats is a difficult matter,
It isn't just one of your holiday games;
At first you may think I'm as mad as a hatter
When I tell you a cat must have THREE DIFFERENT NAMES.
—T. S. Eliot

A

Heteroatoms are atoms
other than carbon or
hydrogen.
A functional group is
the atom, or atoms,
that are the center of
reactivity of a molecule.

s the nineteenth century progressed, chemists
discovered and synthesized more and more different
compounds. The names they gave the compounds reflected their source or some property of the compound. Because of the difficulty of remembering the name of all these compounds, chemists knew they needed a systematic method for naming the compounds they were working with. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) committee took over the task of developing systematic rules of nomenclature. The first report of the IUPAC committee was presented in 1889. Since then, the IUPAC committee has continued studying nomenclature and releasing new rules as required. By using these rules, chemists, or you, can look at the name of a compound and draw its structure or look at the structure of a compound and write its name. Learning how to name and draw the structure of the various compounds is the first...
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