Female circumcision seems to be declining slightly in some areas of Sudan. A culturally accepted policy and political commitment to eradicate the practice are needed. Education and economic empowerment of women would help lower support for the practice. A mass media campaign publicizing the risks of female circumcision and the fact that female circumcision is not obligatory for Islamic women would also be helpful.
In relation to KM this would be a source for information for people to access easily and get their answers in texts, interviews with victims, parts from the Quran proving that it is not right for them to be practising this, a chat forum with psychiatrics and so on.
Female Genital Mutilation has been condemned by the United Nations human rights organizations and health professionals worldwide. Nevertheless, it continues to be practiced, (mainly in Africa) as 90 per cent of girls in Somalia and in Northern Sudan are subjected to the most severe form, i.e. infibulation.
Genital mutilation is a collective term for the variety of procedures in which the external female genitals are removed completely or partly, or other lasting damage is inflicted.
The procedure is mainly carried out by so-called excisors or circumcisers with no medical qualifications. Girls who do not experience chronic pain, serious bleeding or blood poisoning after the procedure often suffer complications during pregnancy, experience great pain during sexual intercourse, and suffer other gynaecological problems and traumas later in life. It is of course difficult for young girls to understand that their closest family allow this to be inflicted upon them. The tradition is upheld for fear that the child will not be accepted for marriage and that she will be ostracised, which can have serious social consequences. Genital mutilation is also a manner in which men exercise control over women’s sexual lives.
Factors such as religion, tradition and sexuality are used to explain and justify the practice of genital mutilation.
THE FOUR TYPES OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION
This is the most common form of Female Genital Mutilation. The clitoris is held between the thumb and index finger and then pulled out and amputated with one stroke of a sharp object. The bleeding is stopped by packing the wound with gauze. A pressure bandage is then applied. Modern trained practitioners may insert one or two stitches around the clitoral artery to stop bleeding. TYPE II
The degree of severity varies a lot in this type. The clitoris is amputated as in Type I. The Labia Minora are partially or totally removed, often with the same stroke. The bleeding is stopped with packing and bandages or by circular stitches that may or may not cover the urethra and part of the vaginal opening. Types I and II account for 85% of all Female Genital Mutilation.
An extensive amount of tissue is removed. This is the most extreme form. It involves a complete removal of the clitoris and labia minor along with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse. Thorns, poultices or stitching are used to hold them together for two to six weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin that covers the urethra and part or most of the vagina. This acts as a physical barrier to intercourse. A small opening is left at the back to allow the flow of urine and menstrual blood. The opening is surrounded by skin and scar tissue. It is usually 2 to 3cm in diameter and may be as small as the head of a matchstick. TYPE IV
This type is unclassified and deals with a variety of procedures. (1) Pricking, piercing, stretching or an incision of the clitoris and/or the labia. (2) Cauterization by burning the clitoris and surrounding...