Fayol's Theories

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Espirit De Corps & 14 Principles of Management By Henry Fayol Espirit De Corps
In order to achieve the best possible results, individual and group efforts are to be effectively integrated and coordinated. Production is a team work for which the whole-hearted support and co-operation of the members at all levels is required. Everyone should sacrifice his personal interest and contribute his best energies to achieve the best results. It refers to the spirit of loyalty, faithfulness on the part of the members of the group which can be achieved by strong motivating recognition and importance of the members for their valuable contribution, effective coordination, informal mutual social relationship between members of the group and positive and constructive approach of the management towards workers' welfare.

Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol:
1. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. According to Henry Fayol under division of work, "The worker always on the same post, the manager always concerned with the same matters, acquire an ability, sureness and accuracy which increases their output. In other words, division of work means specialization. According to this principle, a person is not capable of doing all types of work. Each job and work should be assigned to the specialist of his job. Division of work promotes efficiency because it permits an organizational member to work in a limited area reducing the scope of his responsibility. Fayol wanted the division of work not only at factory but at management levels also. 2. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. Authority and responsibility go together or co-existing. Both authority and responsibility are the two sides of a coin. In this way, if anybody is made responsible for any job, he should also have the concerned authority. Fayol's principle of management in this regard is that an efficient manager makes best possible use of his authority and does not escape from the responsibility. In other words when the authority is exercised the responsibility is automatically generated. 3. DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort. According to Henry Fayol discipline means sincerity about the work and enterprise, carrying out orders and instructions of superiors and to have faith in the policies and programs of the business enterprise, in other sense, discipline in terms of obedience, application, energy and respect to superior. However, Fayol does not advocate warming, fines, suspension and dismissals of worker for maintaining discipline. These punishments are rarely awarded. A well-disciplined working force is essential for improving the quality and quantity of the production. 4. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager. A subordinate should take order from only one boss and he should be responsible and accountable to him. Further he claimed that if the unit of command is violated, authority is undermined, disciplined in danger, order disturbed and stability threatened. The violation of this principle will face some serious consequences. In this way, the principle of unity of command provides the enterprise disciplined stable and orderly existence. It creates harmonious relationship between officers and subordinates, congenial atmosphere of work. 5.UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a...
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