Family Planning Practice and Related Factors of Married Women in Ethiopia

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Original Article

Family planning practice and related factors of married women in Ethiopia inr_805 377..382

I.S. Ko1 RN, PhD, M.A. You2 T.W. Lee1 RN, PhD, S. Kim4 H.K. Lee7 RN, PhD

RN, PhD, E.S. Kim3 RN, DNS FAAN, RN, PhD, Y.M. Kim5 Ed.D, J.J. Nam6 PhD

&

1 Professor, 2 Research Professor, 3 Emeritus Professor, 4 Associate Professor, 6 Senior Researcher, 7 Assistant Professor, Nursing Policy Research Institute, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, 5 Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, Jhpiego, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA

KO I.S., YOU M.A., KIM E.S., LEE T.W., KIM S., KIM Y.M., NAM J.J., LEE H.K. (2010).Family planning practice and related factors of married women in Ethiopia. International Nursing Review 57, 377–382 Background: The family planning (FP) practice rate of Ethiopian women of reproductive age is lower than in most other sub-Saharan African countries. Aim: To examine the status of FP practice and identify intrapersonal, interpersonal and community factors associated with FP practice among married Ethiopian women in a rural area. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenient sample of 193 married women of reproductive age. A structured questionnaire, which was modified based on the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey, was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with FP practice at three levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal and community. Results: Almost 67% of women were currently using at least one FP method and most women obtained FP methods from the public health sector. Short-term methods such as pills and injections were most commonly used. FP practice was significantly associated with willingness to use long-term or permanent FP methods in future and spousal discussion about FP. Conclusions: Both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors were related to FP practice. Community factors, however, need to be further assessed using various methods to plan a comprehensive and more culturally acceptable community-based FP program. Caution is needed to generalize the findings because of the convenient sample, but community-based FP programs emphasizing long-term or permanent methods and male involvement in FP counseling would be successful strategies to increase FP practice. Implications for nursing practice: Nurses and midwives need to be trained to provide knowledge and skills for long-term or permanent FP methods for service quality. Keywords: Contraception, Ecological Model, Ethiopia, Family Planning, Health Needs Assessment, Millennium Development Goals, Survey, Women

Introduction
Globally, 62% of women aged 15–49 years in less developed countries used some type of family planning (FP) methods in

Correspondence address: Hyeonkyeong Lee, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Korea; Tel: 82-2-2228-3373; Fax: 82-392-5440; E-mail: hlee39@yuhs.ac.

2004 [United Nations (UN) 2008]. Ethiopia, however, is characterized by a low FP practice rate (14.7%) and a high total fertility rate (5.4%) in 2005 (Central Statistical Agency & ORC Marco 2006). This is much lower than the percentage of women using FP methods in other sub-Saharan African countries (e.g. 54% in Zimbabwe, 34% in Zambia). Compared with the FP practice in 2000, the use of FP methods nearly doubled in 2005, but Ethiopian women continue to experience an unmet need for FP methods (Central Statistical Agency & ORC Marco 2006). The

© 2010 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2010 International Council of Nurses

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percentage of married women who wanted to space births by at least two years or limit births but who were not using FP methods was 34% in 2005, which is among the highest rate in sub-Saharan African countries (Sedgh et al. 2007). Ethiopia thus faces major challenges in meeting its FP needs, especially in light of the fact...
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