Trista L. Fossa
University of Phoenix
James Bailey, Jr.
February 9, 2009
Fallacy Summary and Application Paper
“A logical fallacy is an element of an argument that is flawed, essentially rendering the line of reasoning, if not the entire argument, invalid.” (Hineman, 2007, ¶ 1) As humans, we are faced with fallacies daily, whether it is at work, at home, or in the media. This paper will define three logical fallacies, explain their significance to critical thinking, and discuss their general application to the decision making process. Logical Fallacies fall into two broad categories, which are the fallacy of relevance and the fallacy of insufficient evidence. Fallacies of relevance pertain to an attempt to prove a point by offering a conclusion that is irrelevant to the discussion or problem at hand. Fallacies of insufficient evidence are cases where insufficient evidence is provided in support of a claim. There are many logical fallacies that fall into these two categories, and we have chosen the following three: The Fallacy of Hasty generalization, the Fallacy of Exclusion, and the Fallacy of Tu Quoque. Hasty generalization is a fallacy of insufficient evidence, because it bases its conclusions on too little evidence. It would mean in a simple sense that because you know three people who say that someone is a mean person, you automatically conclude this as well without getting to know that person, and deciding for yourself. Examples of hasty generalizations can be found anywhere, and everywhere, even in the media. There have been a lot of debates over the years in regards to immigration, especially in the media. “Media reports focus on a valedictorian or other successful immigrant, legal or not, as part of an attempt to argue that immigration is beneficial.” (Stein, 2008, ¶ 1) The media has its way off putting a persuasive...