Launch date:October22, 2008
Journey to the Moon: Five-and-a-half day geotransfer orbit
Nominal mission: Two years
About the spacecraft
The craft will be cube shapes, with a length of 1.5 meters on each side and a total mass of 1,050 kilograms. The satellite’s design is based on ISRO's Kalpansat meteorological satellite, launched in 2002. It will also carry a 30-kilogram probe that will penetrate the lunar surface. A 750-Watt solar panel together with a Lithium-Ion battery will supply power to the spacecraft. A bipropellant engine will be employed to enter orbit and to maintain the spacecraft's orbit at the Moon. The total mission cost is Rs3.8 billion.
Chandrayaan 1 will be launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, on a PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket. After a five-and-a-half-day 240 by 36,000 kilometer geotransfer orbit, it will end up in a 1,000-kilometer (600-mile) orbit around the Moon. From there, it will drop to a checkout orbit of only 200 kilometers (120 miles) and then a final orbit 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the surface of the Moon, where it will orbit for about two years.
The stated scientific objectives of the mission were:
* To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the Moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle. * Conduct scientific experiments using instruments on the spacecraft which would yield the following data: * Preparation of a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution of 5–10 m) of both the near and far side of the Moon. * Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface at high spatial resolution, mapping particularly the chemical elements magnesium Magnesiu,
, aluminium, silicon
, iron, titanium, radon
, uranium, & thorium
oTo increase the scientific knowledge
oThe impact of a sub-satellite (Moon Impact Probe — MIP) on the surface on the Moon as a fore-runner to future soft-landing missions.
Specific areas of study
* High-resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging
Chemical imagingChemical imaging is the analytical capability to create a visual image from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time informations... of the permanently shadowed north and south polar regions.
Search for surface or sub-surface lunar water-ice, especially at the lunar poles Identification of chemicals in lunar highland rocks
Chemical stratigraphy of lunar crust by remote sensing of the central upland s of large lunar craters, and of the South Pole Aitken Region (SPAR), where interior material may be expected. To map the height variation of the lunar surface features.
Observation of X-ray spectrum greater than 10 keV and stereographic coverage of most of the Moon's surface with 5 m resolution * To provide new insights in understanding the Moon's origin and evolution.
End of the mission
The mission was launched in 22 October 2008 and expected to operate for 2 years. However, at 09.02 (UTC) on 29 August 2009 communication with the spacecraft was suddenly lost. The probe had operated for 312 days. The craft will remain in orbit for approximately another 1000 days, eventually crashing into the lunar surface.
A member of the science advisory board of Chandrayaan-1 said that it is difficult to ascertain reasons for the loss of contact. ISRO Chairman -Madhavan Nair- said that due to very high radiation, power-supply units controlling both the computer systems on board failed, snapping the communication connectivity. Completion of primary objectives
Although the mission was less than 10 months in duration, and less than half the intended 2 years in length, a review by scientists termed the mission successful, as it had completed 95% of its primary objectives, consisting of: * To construct the complex spacecraft with 11 scientific instruments. * To place the spacecraft in a circular orbit...