Extreme sports (also called action sport and adventure sport) are a media term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger. These activities often involve speed, height, high level of physical exertion, highly specialized gear or spectacular stunts. At present date, there are no careful studies or statistics of deaths to separate activities with low or normal level of danger from those with high level of danger. While use of the term "extreme sport" has spread far and wide to describe a multitude of different activities, exactly which sports are considered 'extreme' is debatable. There are however several characteristics common to most extreme sports. Extreme sports tend to be more solitary than traditional sports. Nowadays, extreme sports become more and more popular. It is a really topical question, because majority of people who consider themselves active, modern or just courageous try to do extreme sport. Almost every travelling agency offers the clients, taking a tour, take part in different extreme activities. The most popular are: Parachuting, SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) diving, Surfing, Mountain biking, Rock climbing, Mountaineering, Bungee jumping. Extreme sport industry is highly developed and very profitable and it almost stands in one line with traditional sport. There are competitions of extreme sports which are considered to be of equal importance with traditional sport competitions. In this report such aspects as History of extreme games (X games), the winter Extreme Games, and The most popular extreme sports will be covered.
The main part
1.History of extreme games
The origin of the divergence of the term "extreme sports" (X sports) from "sports" may date to the 1950s in the appearance of a phrase usually, but wrongly, attributed to Ernest Hemingway. The phrase is "There are only three sports: bullfighting, motor racing, and mountaineering; all the rest are merely games."The implication of the phrase was that the word "sport" defined an activity in which one might be killed. The other activities being termed "games". The phrase may have been invented by either writer Barnaby Conrad. In recent decades the term extreme sport was further promoted by X Games, a multi-sport event The first X Games (known as 1995 Extreme Games) were held in Newport, Providence, Mount Snow, and Vermont in the United States. The first authoritative history of the sports was published in 2004. “How Big Air, Big Dollars and a New Generation Took Sports to the Extreme” was written by journalist David Browne and published by Bloomsbury. The book provided an overview of the history, culture, and business of the sports and included interviews with athletes, company owners, and marketers. The definition of extreme sports may have shifted over the years due to marketing trends. When the term first surfaced circa the late 1980s/early 1990s, it was used for adult sports such as skydiving, scuba diving, surfing, rock climbing, snow skiing, water skiing, snowboarding, mountain biking, mountaineering, storm chasing, hang gliding, many of which were undergoing an unprecedented growth in popularity at the time. Outside magazine, not the X Games, epitomized the meaning of the term, and if there was a clothing style associated with extreme sports it was an "outdoorsy" look favoring brand names associated with mountaineering or snowboarding and etc. The term nowadays applies more to youth sports like skateboarding, snowboarding, aggressive skating, and is closely associated with marketing efforts aimed at the younger generation with their favored styles of clothing and music, especially the kind of urban baggy look associated with skateboarders, and loud, fast alternative rock. This shift in styles may also be partly a generational shift, as Baby Boomers and Generation X have aged and marketing efforts associated with extreme sports shifted toward the younger...