Extended Essay History

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NAME: AKSHAYE WADHWA
MAY 2013
CANDIDATE NUMBER: 002062-047
WORD COUNT: 3789

HISTORY EXTENDED ESSAY
EFFECT OF THE COLD WAR ON INDIA AND PAKISTAN

"To what extent did events and policies during the Cold War involving India and Pakistan determine their growth till 1991?"

ABSTRACT (WORD COUNT: 327)

This essay attempts to shed some light on the question: "To what extent can the Cold War be looked upon as the main event in shaping the political, economic and military schemes in India and Pakistan 1991?" It starts off by explaining the Cold War, its far reaching implications and the effect it had on two bitter neighbours, India and Pakistan. The focus of the essay then moves onto explaining the nature of the Cold War and its effect upon India and Pakistan briefly. The main source of information for this section of the essay is derived from "the Age of Extremes" by Eric Hobsbawm. It also addresses the differences between the two countries that have come to be of such importance in today's day and age. The essay then moves onto talking about India and Pakistan's individual relationships with the two superpowers. In the case of India I have used my grandfather as a source of primary research, seeing as he was an active investor in the Indian share market back then. I have also cited part of an article from the New York Times in order to make the explanation more effective. The penultimate chapter of the essay focuses on similarities and differences in terms of growth and development, in the Indo-Pak association. It also speaks about the two countries' possession and usage of nuclear weapons. The essay features numerous citations from reliable sources on the internet. Dr. Maleeha Iodi, a former Pakistani ambassador to the USA has also been considered in order to arrive at a rational conclusion.

By the end of the essay, it is concluded that the Cold War was a very important factor, more important than others, in determining the fate of both countries till and even beyond the beginning of the second millennium. It was the first real 'test' for both nations on the international front and its importance in shaping the two nations politically and economically has been underestimated. TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC NUMBER| TOPIC| PAGE NUMBER|
1| INTRODUCTION| 4-5|
2| THE NATURE OF THE COLD WAR AND ITS EFFECTS ON INDIA AND PAKISTAN| 6-7| 3| INDIA DURING THE COLD WAR| 8-10|
4| PAKISTAN AND AMERICAN RELATIONS DURING AND AFTER THE COLD WAR| 11-13| 5| INDIA AND PAKISTAN RELATIONS BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLD WAR| 14-16| 6| CONCLUSION| 17|
7| BIBLIOGRAPHY| 18-19|

INTRODUCTION

The Cold War was perhaps the most far-reaching conflict in the history of world. Whilst the long-drawn out, inconclusive, battle between two superpowers representing two radically opposite philosophies exhibited everything (including armed conflicts such as the Afghan War) a civilized, modernized society would hate to see, the end of it marked the refurbishment and enhancement of several states previously oppressed against or seen as 'puppet states'.

The partition of India in 1947 was one of the most terrifying yet significant events that occurred in South Asia during the course of the 20th century. The Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, which came into being as a result of the partition, is a nation that has and continues to dominate world politics. Whilst India has evolved within 60 years to become a potential superpower with a booming economy, diverse culture and democratic government, why is it that her immediate neighbour remains a state in ruins featuring humanitarian, security and a variety of other problems? One could look at the countries' domestic affairs and draw parallels between the functioning of the governments. Comparisons between culture is another common 'assessment criteria' patrons of the India-Pakistan issue could use. However, the notable differences in the state of both countries are actually...
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