Exercise vs. Diet in Weight Loss
It is estimated that 55% of the adult population in the United States are either obese or overweight (National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, 1998). Obesity substantially increases an individual’s risk of suffering from chronic diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Those with excess fat in the abdominal area are at increased health risk (National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute). In an attempt to define the role of exercise in the treatment and prevention of obesity, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) held a scientific roundtable to address this subject. Following the meeting, several consensus statements regarding physical activity and public health were released. Two statements are of particular interest to the applied exercise professional. The first statement declares that the addition of exercise to a diet with restricted caloric intake promotes fat loss, while maintaining fat free mass. The second statement claims that physical activity, without caloric restriction, minimally if at all affects fat loss. The statements suggest that to optimize weight loss, a combination of diet and exercise is best, and that exercise alone will not suffice. Although it is well established that a regimen of diet and exercise is the best way to control body weight, a recent review by Ross, Freeman, and Janssen (2000) challenges ACSM’s statement that exercise alone is not an effective method of weight loss. This review suggests that the studies this statement was based upon do not effectively compare caloric restricting programs to increased energy expenditure programs. They conclude that if these factors were equal, exercise alone can be as effective as caloric restriction for weight loss. The purpose of this article is to present Ross et al.’s argument contrasting the ACSM consensus statement.
EXERCISE VS. CALORIC RESTRICTION
In their review, Ross et al. (2000) report that few randomized control trials equally compare diet only to exercise only weight loss programs. For example, in a twelve-week study, Hagan, Wong, and Whittam (1986) compared the amount of weight lost through diet only to the amount of weight lost through an exercise program. The obese women and men in the diet only group (n=24) that reduced their caloric intake lost 5.5 kg and 8.4 kg, respectively. To achieve this degree of weight loss, women decreased their average caloric intake by 945 kilocalories a day while the men decreased their average intake by 1705 kilocalories a day. The exercise only group (n = 24 obese men and women), performed a 30-minute walk/jog program 5 days/week. On average, the women expended 190 kilocalories per session while the men expended an average of 255 kilocalories per session, which resulted in a total weight loss of .6 kg and .3 kg for women and men, respectively. The women in the diet only program decreased their body fat from 35% to 29%, where as the women doing exercise only went from 35% to 33% body fat. Additionally, the men in the diet only group decreased body fat from 26% to 21% where as the exercise only group experienced no change in their body fat. This study clearly illustrates that weight loss through diet only was not equated to energy expenditure through exercise only. Therefore, equal amounts of weight loss should not be expected.
In contrast, Sopko et al. (1985) in a twelve-week study, with obese men, reported that when the negative energy balance created by diet only and exercise only are equal, the two treatments produce similar results. The participants in the diet only group (n=10) experienced a weight loss of 6.1kg by restricting their caloric intake 500 kcal/day. The exercise only group (n=6) lost 6.2 kg by performing a treadmill walking program in which they expended 500 kcal/day. The men in the diet only group went from...