Exam 3

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Exam 4 Essay Questions

1) Due Friday 12/7 by 11:59 p.m.
How does institutional discrimination operate in the United States with respect to women? What is meant by the term glass ceiling? What does research show about the division of labor between men and women in housework? The patterns within family system are said to reflect and be influenced by the surrounding social environment while also shaping shaping those environments.and childcare? How might this affect famiy dyamics? Society? How does the concept of the “second shift” apply to the social construction of gender? 2) Due Tuesday 12/11 by 11:59 p.m. This final essay provides a chance to reflect on what we have covered this semester as a class. The essay question has two parts, the first being required for the exam, worth 24 points, and the second part being optional for extra credit, worth up to 12 extra credit points. Please read through all of the following information before determining how clear your understanding of the questions is.

We have identified one of the central themes in sociology to be the question of who does what (labor) and who gets what (distribution of the surplus created through labor). The idea of private property and the social institutions that emerge to define and defend the right to private property, play a role in the development of inequality and stratification in society. The discussion of property, property rights, and inequality has a long history, filled with diverse arguments, ideas, and diagnoses. Below is a sampling of quotes capturing a range of perspectives on the subject:

The first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground, bethought himself of saying This is mine, and found people simple enough to believe him, was the real founder of civil society.  From how many crimes, wars and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not anyone have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows, "Beware of listening to this impostor; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody."  ~Jean Jacques Rousseau

Just as man can't exist without his body, so no rights can exist without the right to translate one's rights into reality, to think, to work and keep the results, which means: the right of property.  ~Ayn Rand

As long as our civilization is essentially one of property, of fences, of exclusiveness, it will be mocked by delusions.   ~Ralph Waldo Emerson

Upon the sacredness of property civilization itself depends - the right of the laborer to his hundred dollars in the savings bank, and equally the legal right of the millionaire to his millions.  ~Andrew Carnegie

You are horrified at our intending to do away with private property. But in your existing society, private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population; its existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths. You reproach us, therefore, with intending to do away with a form of property, the necessary condition for whose existence is the non-existence of any property for the immense majority of society. ~ Karl Marx

The institution of private property, in the full, legal meaning of the term, was brought into existence only by capitalism. In the pre-capitalist eras, private property existed de facto, but not de jure, i.e., by custom and sufferance, not by right or by law. In law and in principle, all property belonged to the head of the tribe, the king, and was held only by his permission, which could be revoked at any time, at his pleasure. ~Ayn Rand

Private property began the instant somebody had a mind of his own. ~E. E. Cummings

In every stockjobbing swindle everyone knows that some time or other the crash must come, but every one hopes that it may fall on the head of his neighbor, after he himself has caught the shower of gold and placed it in...
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