The problems and its Background
In today’s competitive environment, developing and attaining standards or competence for all teachers has increased. Competencies are defined as the set of knowledge, skills and experience necessary for future, which manifests in activities (Katane et.al. 44). The standards and competence of teachers creates a professional and effective environment of “best teaching” practice. They allow schools to confidently make systems, policies and procedures to uphold and guarantee high operational quality that leads to exceptional records and management performance (Hamdan,2010).
Teachers’ performance evaluation is definitely not a new trend. However, what is new is the deep interest in the past ten years to enhance ways of teachers’ evaluation (Oldham,1974). Evaluating teachers’ performance is a controversial issue. Early in the history of teacher performance appraisal, educators were evaluated based on traits or characteristics which may or may not have been related to performance, and yet no significant body of knowledge confirms to the fact that effective teaching performance is dependent on specific traits. As a result, this form of evaluation was discarded (Vollmer, 1987).
Presently, teacher evaluation strongly emphasizes evaluating performance competencies (Oliva & Henson, 1980, johnson, 1978). Generally, performance competency evaluation is done by a "superior" or "expert", e.g. Principal, director, school administrator, or superintendent. Performance-based evaluation is has some distinct advantages. First, identifying performance competencies enables the evaluatee to know what is expected. Secondly, once competencies are identified, weaknesses can be pinpointed. Teachers need to improve knowledge and skills to enhance, improve and explore their teaching practices.
To ensure the reliability of the evaluation of teachers’ competencies, one effective method is to ensure that the evaluation instrument has clearly defined, non-subjective criteria that require minimal interpretation. It can be accomplished by carefully developing evaluation instruments (eg. pilot-testing the instruments before using them) and training observers (Mujis, 2006). Without these steps, the data gathered cannot be transformed into meaningful information. Furthermore, designers of teacher evaluation systems must ensure that evaluation tools are valid- it means, that the rubric or observation form assesses that teaching performance it was designed to measure.
The Philippine educational system in its never ending search for cure or therapy for the poor quality of education has resorted to a lot of theories, like reinventing education, restructuring the Basic Education Curriculum, reengaging teachers on maximum time on task and reevaluation of duties and functions of the people in the educational structure. Hence, this search is not just endless task and re-evaluation of duties and functions of the people in the educational structure or those who are in the upper level of the bureaucracy, but it is everyone’s concern. Improving schools is a search, an ongoing procedure and design to set off and carry on the mission “learning for all” which have become a cliché (Ariola, 2005). Indeed our quest for excellence and quality does not stop as the road for excellence does not have a finish line.
Teacher evaluation should be a small but significant part of the larger strategy for school improvement (Mitchell et al., 1990) which would see staff development take place prior to evaluations (Wood & Lease, 1987). Hence, most of educational institutions, in their quest for improved quality education, dedicate time and effort in devising evaluation tools that will help determine the competencies of their teachers and serve as basis for possible development programs.
Every day more organizations recognize that their people are a source of competitive advantage. As a result, Human...
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