Etics and Sex Trafficking in Australia

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Executive Summary
In Australia, the high and ongoing demand for young Asian sex workers, in excess of local supply, creates a market opportunity for sex traffickers in women and children from countries like Thailand, Philippines, China and Cambodia. One reliable source estimates the Australian trafficking industry nets approximately Australian $1 million per week to the organizers’ of the trade. This term paper examines the global trade of the trafficking of women into the sex industry from a business ethics standpoint. The subject of sex trafficking is analyzed not as a topic in itself but with the use of the only known case of a conviction related to trafficking in Australia: that of Gary Glazner. This sex trafficker and brothel keeper was convicted of importing and imprisoning Thai women until they repaid their debt to him for sponsoring their illegal entry into Australia through the provision of sexual services. The paper opens with a case history, the purpose of which is to give the reader an overview of the nature of the sex trafficking industry in Australia. The paper then analyzes the problem of sex trafficking with the use of ethical reasoning, the Stakeholder Management Approach, the five ethical decision-making principles and lastly, the four ethical decision making styles. The third portion of the paper, entitled “limitations and assumptions” sets out the various boundaries under which the analysis was informed by, including various definitions of what composes of sex trafficking and sexual slavery with respect to the laws of Australia. It also discusses the difficulties in reaching consensus on the extent of the problem in Australia; explains the difference between prostitution, which is legal in Australia and slavery and sexual servitude and suggests reasons why, to date, there have been no prosecutions of traffickers under the Commonwealth Criminal Code. Lastly, conclusions and recommendations are formed in light of the analysis of the issue of sex trafficking. The conclusion refers briefly to strategies adopted in the US and in Europe to combat this crime. These latest developments suggest that a comprehensive approach designed to meet the interrelated goals of the prosecution of traffickers and the protection and support of victims is required to combat the crime of sex trafficking. Existing Australian law and policy is assessed in light of these developments.

Case History
The majority of the women who immigrate do not do so voluntarily, but to follow the flow of resources out of their countries where they become exploitable commodities. Often, They are denied citizenship and worker rights, and then they are disposed of when no longer needed. A study done in 1994 indicated that significant numbers of Asian women began entering the Sydney sex industry in the mid 1980’s (Brockett and Murray 1994). Also in this report it was noted that ninety (90) percent of these women were trafficked, arriving debt-bonded, with increasing debts. Some of these women were being forced to have sex with ‘clients’ to pay back debts of up to $30,000 (Brockett and Murray 1994: 191-2).

The head of the Australian Federal Police (AFP) in 1995, investigated into sex trafficking and estimated that there were up to 500 women, trafficked in debt-bonded prostitution at any one time. However, apart from the Immigration Compliance records of the Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA), there was little research to indicate the scale of trafficking in Australia. A total of two hundred and forty three (243) people, of which two hundred and thirty seven (237) were women in 1998-1999 compared to fifty-six (56) in 1996-1997 were deported, having been located in brothels (Maltzahn 2002a cited in DIMIA 2000). These figures nonetheless, cannot represent the exact numbers of women being trafficked as a result of the following issues: Firstly, it cannot be assumed that all foreigners...
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