Ethics

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  • Topic: Black hat, Hacker, White hat
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  • Published : March 5, 2013
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Ethics in Information Technology

Computer and Internet Crime

Types of Attacks
* Most frequent attack is on a networked computer from an outside source

Types of attacks
* Virus
* Worm
* Trojan horse
* Denial of service

Viruses
* Pieces of programming code
* Usually disguised as something else
* Cause unexpected and usually undesirable events
* Often attached to files
* Deliver a “payload”
* Does not spread itself from computer to computer
* Must be passed on to other users through
* Infected e-mail document attachments
* Programs on diskettes
* Shared files
* Macro viruses
* Most common and easily created viruses
* Created in an application macro language
* Infect documents and templates

Worms
* Harmful programs
* Reside in active memory of a computer
* Duplicate themselves
* Can propagate without human intervention
* Negative impact of virus or worm attack
* Lost data and programs
* Lost productivity
* Effort for IT workers

Trojan Horses
* Program that a hacker secretly installs
* Users are tricked into installing it
* Logic bomb
* Executes under specific conditions

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks
* Malicious hacker takes over computers on the Internet and causes them to flood a target site with demands for data and other small tasks * The computers that are taken over are called zombies * Does not involve a break-in at the target computer

* Target machine is busy responding to a stream of automated requests * Legitimate users cannot get in
* Spoofing generates a false return address on packets
* Ingress filtering - When Internet service providers (ISPs) prevent incoming packets with false IP addresses from being passed on * Egress filtering - Ensuring spoofed packets don’t leave a network

Perpetrators
* Motives are the same as other criminals
* Different objectives and access to varying resources
* Different levels of risk to accomplish an objective

Hackers and Crackers
* Hackers
* Test limitations of systems out of intellectual curiosity * Types of Hacker
* White hat
A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, perhaps to test their own security system or while working for a security company which makes security software. The term "white hat" in Internet slang refers to an ethical hacker. This classification also includes individuals who perform penetration tests and vulnerability assessments within a contractual agreement. The International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants, also known as the EC-Council has developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of Ethical Hacking.[6] * Black hat

* A Black Hat Hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" (Moore, 2005).[7] Black Hat Hackers form the stereotypical, illegal hacking groups often portrayed in popular culture, and are "the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal".[8] Black Hat Hackers break into secure networks to destroy data or make the network unusable for those who are authorized to use the network. They choose their targets using a two-pronged process known as the "pre-hacking stage". * Part 1: Targeting

* The hacker determines what network to break into during this phase. The target may be of particular interest to the hacker, either politically or personally, or may pick one at random. Next, they will port scan a network to determine if it is vulnerable to attacks, which is just testing all ports on a host machine for a response. Open ports—those that do respond—will allow a hacker to access the system. * Part 2: Research and Information Gathering

* It is in this stage that the...
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