Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia Vulgaris Linn Of Philippine Origin: Its Antibacterial Activity
Dr. Jennifer U. Dotado-Maderazo
Lyceum of the Philippines University- Batangas
College of Dentistry
Introduction and Review of Literature
The Philippines is known for its natural resources, being a tropical country, its supply of naturally occurring medicinal plants can be observed everywhere. Thus, the practice of traditional medicine has been passed on from generation to generation. Its significance has further deepened in the health care delivery considering the expensive western medicine which most Filipinos cannot afford.
Essential oils are used as flavoring for foods and as a fragrance in the perfume and cosmetic industry. They have been proposed as natural preservative agents for cosmetic preparations because of their antimicrobial activities [Mangena 1999]. In view of the increasing use of essential oils in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, it is important to examine the oils from indigenous plants for antibacterial activities. Artemisia genus which belongs to the Asteraceae family and comprises several species with approximately more than 500 species, are widely distributed primarily in temperate regions and subtropics of Asia, Europe and North America (Barney et.al 2002) (R.G. Kelseyand 1979). Among these species, Artemisia Vulgaris Linn from the Philippines is used as vulnerary, expectorant, carminative and emmenagogue ( Quisumbing 1978). Artemisia vulgaris oil is also used for its insecticidal, antimicrobial properties (VK Kaul et al, 1976) ( US Laxmi et.al 1991) and antimalarial activity (G Milham 1997). Although the genus Artemisia from other countries has been studied, the specie of Artemisia Vulgaris Linn from the Philippines has not been extensively studied. Studies had shown that composition variation can be observed in oils from different organs of the same species (Katayoun et al. 2004) with the location of the collection (sun, shadow, geographic location) and different species in the same genus ( Risti 2000). As of the researcher’s knowledge, Artemisia Vulgaris Linn still had limited documentation to prove the folklore claims of its antibacterial properties. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Artemisia Vulgaris Linn of Philippine origin. This study was conducted to prove that the constituents extracted from Artemisia vulgaris linn from our country possess antibacterial property that can be used as a raw material in the production of new drugs or antiseptic solution specifically for cleansing and healing wounds in the oral cavity.
Review of Literature
Artemisia Vulgaris Linn is from the family of Myrtaceae, genus Artemisia, common names are ka maria (Tagalog), Abraaka (ilocos), Artanusa (Central Bisaya), Cintura de San Jose (Spanish), Cordon de San Jose (Spanish), Damong Maria (Tagalog), Gilbas (Central Bisaya), Erbaka( Ilocos), Herbaaka (Bon.), Kamaria (Tagalog), Maria (Tagalog), Santa Maria (Tagalog), Tinisas (Tagalog), Corona de San Juan, Ajenjo (Spanish), Chinese honeysuckle (English), Motherwort (English), Maiden wort (English), Felon herb, mugwort (English) and Wegwood, wormwood (English).It is widely distributed in the Philippines, around houses, gardens and open places. It can be propagated by cutting and layering. Parts utilized are the leaves and flower. It is an erect herb, hairy, aromatic, often semiwoody, with leafy and branched stems. Leaves are up to 14 centimeters long, lobed, hairy, gray beneath, with nearly smooth upper surface. Numerous flower heads are spikelike, ascending, branched inflorescences. Fruit is minute. (http://www.stuartxchange.org/KaMaria.html) Plant yields a volatile oil consisting of cineol, thujone, paraffin and aldehyde, fragrant but bitter to taste. (Stuart 2009, as cited in the Compilation of Philippine Herbal...
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