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LO: Evaluate one theory of how emotions may affect one cognitive process (22marks) Emotions can greatly affect memory; to forget or to remember Brown and Kulik (1997) called this Flashbulb memory (central event + circumstances) Emotionally impacting events (high levels of emotional arousal) -> mental photograph = vivid/ Even just mundane info of event affected (printed on brain as permanent record e.g. 9/11, Michael Jackson’s death, assassination of President Kennedy Study of FBM by Brown and Kulik (1997) –A: to demonstrate FBM P: 80 American participants (40 white, 40 black)/ answers to qns about 10 events 9: assassinations or attempts of well-known Americans (J.F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King) 1: personal event, involving unexpected shock

asked… to recall the circumstances when they first heard of the events to indicate how often they rehearsed this info R: 90% recalled the assassination of JF Kennedy in vivid details – highest no. 75% African Americans remembered FBM about assassination of ML King, but only 33% of Caucasian Americans could

Most participants recalled a personal FBM (eg death of a parent) C: Demonstrated FBM (as events unexpected, and of personal relevance in many ways) leaders of civil rights movements more personally relevant for A Americans FBM for personal event remembered by most – demonstrates

-> emotional significance/ relevance increases likelihood of being stored as FBM; scene printed onto memory(permanent) – detailed, accurate, resistant to forgetting E: No control condition to compare normal and FBM (assume FBM more accurate) -> methodological shortcoming

Historical bias; carried out in 1977, cultural and social norms different Sample bias (cultural); only Americans are used, cannot represent the whole Some may argue against; people don’t consider event as important till afterwards Eg. 9/11 – after knowing the seriousness, bigger impact

Post memories (Harsch and Neisser) affect accuracy in spite of...
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