Enzyme Formal Lab

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Investigation on the effects of Temperature, pH levels, and Enzyme Concentration on the reaction rate of the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide by Catalase

The purpose of this investigation is to figure out how temperature, pH, and enzyme concentration affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. It’s important to understand how certain factors affect enzymes because of their crucial role in the metabolic processes of life. Enzymes lower the activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur, allowing vital processes such as digestion, ATP production, and DNA replication to occur efficiently. Using a Vernier Gas Pressure Sensor the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase as it decomposed Hydrogen Peroxide in a test tube was measured and then results were put on the screen of a Macintosh computer using Logger Pro software and Vernier computer software. Several trials were then done with one factor, either temperature, pH, or enzyme concentration being altered, while the remaining two stayed constant. The rate of reaction of catalase should increase with enzyme concentration until a certain point until it reaches its limit. For temperature the rate of reaction of catalase should increase until the enzyme catalase denatures, and then after the rate should start to decrease. When exposed to different pH levels the rate of reaction of catalase should increase as the enzyme catalase reaches its optimal pH level, once it’s at that point the rate of reaction should then decrease as the pH level goes farther away from catalase’s optimal pH level. The data for the trials of pH and enzyme concentration support the expected hypotheses of how the reaction rate would be affected, however the data did not support the hypothesis made for the effects of temperature on an enzyme’s reaction rate due to divergent data from the expected results. (need this line or is conclusion and results of data and trends summarized with data supported hypotheses) ask if titel too long,, how much detail for materials and method, is saying folled hypo enough or more specific data,

Introduction
It is important to understand what different factors in an enzyme’s environment affect it and in what ways, because enzymes are vital to the metabolic processes that make life as we know it to be possible. Enzymes work by catalyzing reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction to occur (Campbell, 96). A reaction is catalyzed when the substrate comes into contact with the active site of an enzyme, which is the location where the enzyme is able to bind itself to the substrate (Campbell, 98). A reaction cannot be created by an enzyme but unless it catalyses it then it might not happen at a fast enough rate (Campbell, 97). So what would happen if an organism’s enzymes were not working, then that specific organism could not do many of the basic functions it goes through everyday. For instance digestion is strongly linked to enzymes because digestive enzymes are necessary for our cells to break down macromolecules in order for the cell to absorb nutrients fast enough for it to function properly (Digestion, Wiki). Enzymes also play a key role in ATP production, a process primarily done by mitochondria in animal cells that allows the cell sufficient energy to perform many important functions such as cell division. Mitochondria requires ATP synthase, an enzyme, to produce ATP by catalyzing the reaction of adding a phosphate group to ADP, leaving ATP as a product (Energy and Enzymes, Gregory). Even in the DNA of organisms are enzymes found to be helpful. DNA replication is aided by DNA polymerase, an enzyme that untwists the DNA strand so its genetic code can then be read and then replicated by RNA (How cells work, Brain). Most organisms would not be able to reproduce without DNA replication, leaving them and their species doomed to face extinction. Enzymes are also being used in cutting edge medicine; with the new enzyme immunoassay method...
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