Environmental Control and Pollution in Nigeria

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INTRODUCTION
Civilization has been overwhelmed with fearful reports that mankind is steadily working towards self – destruction through the process of uncontrolled pollution of the environment. A casual look at our surroundings shows reckless attitude of people towards environmental preservation. Due to this development, regulations and standards have been set to ensure cleaner and safer environment. These regulations are enforced by agencies like National Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and State Environmental Protection Agencies (SEPAs). There are environment regulations currently in place which include regulation on noise, erosion, flood, for manufacturers of beverages and tobacco, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electrical, electronics, sanitation, emissions that that have to do with air pollution. There are also regulations on pollution, hazards, waste, air, soil, surface and subsurface water that constitute contamination of the environment. We have major forms of pollution such as water, noise, air, land/soil and thermal pollutions which sources include natural disaster, industries, motor vehicles, generation sets amongst others. Without pollution control, the waste products from extraction, production, distribution, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of environmental control, pollution prevention and minimization of wastes are more desirable to pollution control. Most industries and individuals in this country have erroneously claimed that why they are not able to treat or control their wastes or reduce pollution is that government has not provided the necessary facilities for the management of such wastes. Apart from the basic facilities the government has to provide, each waste generator is responsible for the safe disposal of his or her waste, except when government insists on a particular system. No government builds toxic waste incinerators or chemical treatment plants but all the government can do is to encourage entrepreneurs interested in such ventures by granting special concession, tax relief, removal of duty on imported pollution control equipment. The purpose of setting environmental regulations is to reduce or eliminate health and environmental hazards that induce harm.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
What is an Environment?
The African Centre for Environmental Protection (ACEP) defines environment as the totality of surrounding condition and its features. Scientifically, it is described as the combination of physical, chemical, biological and social factors in which a living organism exists that affect the organism, community and influences its development or existence. Environment can simply be considered as the surrounding in which we live, work and enjoy leisure, which consists of air, soil, surface and surface water, providing habitat for mankind and other animals, plant species and serving as a source for food, water, fuel, raw materials and breathing air. Environmental Problems

Environmental imbalance gives rise to various environmental problems. Some of the environmental problems are pollution, soil erosion leading to floods, salt deserts and sea recedes, desertification, landslides, change of river directions, extinction of species, and vulnerable ecosystem in place of more complex and stable ecosystems, depletion of natural resources, waste accumulation, deforestation, thinning of ozone layer and global warming. Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of our air, land and water. It can also be described as ‘the deliberate or accidental contamination of the environment with waste that is created by human action’. As a result of over – population, rapid industrializations, and other...
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