Short Notes on Environment versus Heredity, Optimist versus Pessimistic, Reactive vs Proactive
Environment versus Heredity this refers to the same as nature versus nurture. Nature refers to heredity: the genetic makeup or "genotypes" referring to information that is encoded and imprinted in a person’s Deoxyribonucleic acid otherwise called DNA. The notion of nature, therefore, refers to the biologically prescribed tendencies and capabilities individuals possess, which may unfold themselves throughout the course of life. Heredity may range from this is a specific genetic predispositions that are specific to each individual and that therefore potentially explain differences in individual characteristics example temperament, to those supposedly specific to certain groups and that therefore account for group differences in related characteristics example gender and height, and to those that are theorized to be shared by all humans and are generally thought to set humans apart from other species example the language acquisition device in humans (J. Rank,2013). Nurture, by contrast, refers to various external or environmental factors to which an individual is exposed from conception to death. These environmental factors involve several dimensions. For example, they include both physical environments and the atmosphere one example of this is secondhand smoking and prenatal nutrition. Another environmental factor is the social environments; example of this is the media and peer pressure. Also, environmental factors vary in their immediacy to the individual; they involve multiple layers of forces, ranging from most immediate, which include families, friends, and neighborhoods to a larger contexts of school systems and local governments and goes up to macro factors such as international politics and global warming. To complicate matters even further, the factors in each of these layers influence and are influenced by elements within and outside of these layers. For...
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