Scientific Management - F.W.Taylor
Scientific Management originated in the beginning of the 20th century, and Frederick W. Taylor was the primary contributor. Scientific Management was based on an idea of systematization where attempts were made to enhance the efficiency of procedures to best effect via scientific analyses and experiments. Taylor believed that it was possible to prescribe the processes that resulted in maximum output with a minimum input of energy and resources. Thus, Taylor's starting point was the individual work process, which had considerable consequences throughout the system. The structure had to be adapted to the focus that was put on work processes, and in doing so; the manager lost his governing role as he was subjected to scientifically calculated solutions, therefore, it was necessary to establish a staff of specialists who were capable of determining the optimum work processes. Since the employee and his handling of work processes was the starting point, Taylor's approach is categorized as a bottom up approach. Scientific Management was quickly adopted by large mass-producing industrial companies. Henry Ford is the most outstanding example of what is characterized as the 'industrial revolution’. From studies of time and carefully determined educational skills, cars were now constructed by mass production in fixed, machine-like procedures, which created new ism - Fordism. Hence, Scientific Management has had a decisive and long impact on the industrial practice and on the theoretical ideas of organizations in general. Later on, the theory was criticized by both employees and managers as scientific times study disregarded their own common sense and judgment. As a result of this resistance and the spread of other view of humanity, Scientific Management is no longer prevalent as a managerial ideology. However, it still functions as a guideline for procedures, not only in the industrial sector, but also in the service sector....
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