Energy and Climate

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submitted at the

IMC University of Applied Science Krems

Master’s Programme

International Business and Export-oriented Management


Paulo Azeredo

Maximilian Gierlinger

Mario Schlichtinger

Subject: International Institutions & Strategic Relations (IISR1)

Lector: Prof.(FH) MMag. Dr. Anis Bajrektarevic

Table of contents

2.1.1Primary Energy Mix3
2.1.2Production and Consumption5
2.1.3Renewable Energy Resources5
2.2Fossil Fuels and Carbon Emissions5
2.2.1De-Carbonization Trend5
2.2.2Air pollution6
2.2.3Kyoto Protocol6
2.3.2Hydro Storage proprieties10
2.3.3Iceland – world’s first hydrogen economy10
2.3.4Car fuels10
3.2Climate change12
3.2.1What Is Global Warming And Climate Change?12
3.2.2What Is The Greenhouse Effect?13
3.2.3What Are The Main Indicators Of Climate Change?14
3.2.4What Are The Impacts Of Global Warming?15


The issue of sustainability has become more and more important and famous during the past years, not only in the media but also in the economy. Initiatives of “thinking green” and “greening the supply chain” to “act in a sustainable way” are getting better known and are becoming more and more business practice. But what is the reason behind that?

Companies, and also nations need a certain amount of energy and this certain amount has been growing since the 19th century. This energy needs to be withdrawn from somewhere, so various source of energy are being used and not all of them work without polluting the environment.

As pollution throughout the last decades has increased in exploding dimensions, causing numerous problems all over the globe (the leaking ozone layer, endangered natural habitat of animals, injured / killed animals and humans, etc.) and as some resources humanity is relying upon today are scarce, or will be scarce in the future a restructuring of the sourcing of energy in necessary.

In this paper information about the current and past situation concerning energy and climate, as well as trends in the future will be given. An overview over contemporary issues concerning energy and climate will be performed and ways to deal with the situations. Also content of this paper is an overview over some institutions that try to better the situation by setting regulations for nations and for the economy.


In the following will be explained how nations gain their energy and from which sources, a short overview on the issue of production and consumption of energy, and renewable resources will be given. Then issues of fossil fuels and issues that arrive with its usage will be addressed, as well as a short overview over the Kyoto Protocol will be given.

1 General

1 Primary Energy Mix

The amount of energy a country needs is different from one nation to another, also the source of its energy varies. As many different sources of energy are used the terminology of an “Energy Mix” is necessary. Basically five various sources of energy are available to humanity nowadays:

• Oil
• Natural Gas
• Coal
• Nuclear Energy
• Renewable Energy Sources

What renewable energy sources are will be explained later on in this paper. As stated above, every nation uses different sources for energy which leads to the so called energy mix. The decision on what sources to use are based on four criteria:

• Availability of the source
• Energy needs of the nation
• Economic, social, and environmental issues
• Political issues (which depend on the above)

Differences in the sourcing of energy can not only be seen due to the economical standard of...
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