Topics: DNA, Gene, Genetics Pages: 3 (866 words) Published: December 12, 2012

Exploration of Encode

In September 2003, The National Human Genome Research Institute or NHGRI set out a project called ENCODE. ENCODE stands for the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, and was set out to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. This means identifying all the regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification in the human genome sequence. These functional elements were able to be identified and now 80% of the components have at least one biochemical function related to them. The project started with two components, which were a pilot phase and a technology development phase. This project has provided new details into the ordinance of genes and genome.

This project holds data about the degree of DNA into RNA molecules and analyzes long-range chromatin interactions that alter the relative proximities of different chromosomal regions in three dimensions and transcription. In detail, ENCODE depict the binding acticity of transcription factor proteins, along with the location and sequence of gene-regulatory DNA elements. This includes the promoter region above the point of where an RNA molecule begins and long range regulatory elements. The other half of the project was dedicated to testing the accessibility of the genome to the DNA-cleavage protein, to the accessible region known as DNase1. DNase are hypersensitive sites and are believed to inform specific sequences at which the binding of transcription factors and transcription-machinery proteins has caused nucleosome displacement. Other particular assays that are used are ChIP-sequencing, Hypersensitivity, RNA-sequencing, and DNA methylation. Lastly, this project has cataloged the sequences and quantities of RNA transcripts from protein and non-coding regions.

The pilot phase concentrated on just 1% of the genome, which is rather small but it came with a...
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