Conflict resolution is a process of resolving issues arisen in a dispute. Negotiation is a collaborative process, in which participants try to find a solution of the parties involved. The knowledge of the negotiation process is used in the practice of conflict resolution to prevent its negative consequences. This report examines the practical principles in conflict resolution to deal with the dispute in a way that is nonviolent, limit the domination by one side over the other side rather than exploiting from one side to solve conflicts arisen in the workplace. Conflict resolution can be viewed as a set of strategies that is described, outlined how negotiators actually behave and recommendation are also given in which negotiators should use to resolve the conflicts.
CHAPTER 1: NEGOTIATION – FOUNDATION AND APPROACH
1. Basic concept of negotiation
According to Kissinger (1969), negotiation defined as “a process of combining conflicting positions into a common position, under a decision rule of unanimity”. Negotiation is the process of communication mutually, with the purpose of reaching a agreement about various needs or ideas. It is a collection of behaviours related to communication and conflict resolution. Negotiation is also a process of interaction between two or more people or parties, aims to gain an understanding, resolve the difference, or take advantage in outcome of communication, to bargain the benefits of individual and collective parties, to build the result to meet various needs of parties related to a negotiation process. Therefore, negotiation is a process that each party involved to get the outcome by the end of the process. Negotiation is aimed at compromise. There are many different definition about negotiation. However, among participant in a conflict has common interest and mutual dependence (Schelling, 1960) 2. Negotiation options
According to Robin (2002), five conflict resolution styles are compromise, collaboration, competition, accommodation and avoidance that describe how to use these styles strategically and give an advice regarding to conflict resolution of negotiation. Each style may be appropriate to use in different situations. When related parties have different views, a mediator may be needed. 3.1. Compromise
Robin (2002) argued that compromise involves bargaining that related parties are expected to give up some aspects of their desired results. Compromise often achieve a temporary solution and avoid damaging long-term relationship. Compromise can be used to get a solution quickly. It is often related to high adjustment of high emotion, low skill levels, average of the goal from sides and the status of the relationship, win-win attitudes towards moderate concern, traditional and average fear of punishment. 3.2. Collaboration
Related parties are equal participants who work together to get win-win strategies for solving problems (Robin, 2002). Collaboration characterise by emphasize similarity between parties with the identification of common goals (Lewicki& Litterer, 1985). Collaboration focuses on maximizing parties’ benefits to achieving both their own and partner's goals (Pruitt, 1983). This approach typically requires the investment on time and effort from both sides (Sheppard, Blumenfeld Jones & Roth, 1989); however, the result usually gets durable and more systematic concessions (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975). Collaborating requires high to average skill levels of parties, clear goals, strong status of relationship, win-win attitude. 3.3. Competition
According to Robin (2002), competitive orientation characterized by linking with coercive processes to the competitors to maximize the information they need. In addition, this style addresses to maximize individual benefits gain without concern for the collective. This approach involves high emotional level, clear goals, and weak relationship of both sides. In such negotiations, the...