1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Of all the factors of production, labour is the most important factor of production, which is supplied by the employees. The success or failure of any enterprise is therefore ultimately predicated on the willingness or otherwise of the people who supply the labour Force. A manager plays an important part in coordinating the efforts of individual workers to active organizational objectives. His work also include planning, organizing, leading, directing and supervising workers so that they can willingly, and happily contribute their best to the accomplishment and attainment of corporate objectives.
It is pertinent to acknowledge the fact that people are unique because they have different needs, different ambitions, different attitudes and desires, different levels of knowledge and skills as well as different potentials. A manager should recognize these differences and devise different motivational programmes to meet individual needs. If an individual’s need is satisfied he will be motivated to produce more – All motivational programmes try to create conditions that encourage workers to satisfy their needs on one hand and to accomplish the organisation’s objectives on the other hand. Motivation is therefore seen worldwide as an inevitable panacea for increase productivity not only in the industrial or social setting but also in the institutions of higher learning. Psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist and management experts have propounded relevant theories buttressing the significance of motivation.
Abraham Maslow (1954)1 in his hierarchy of needs theory opinion, “that an individual have five basic categories of needs that motivate him to action. These comprise physiological, safety, social ego and self-actualization of needs. These needs are arranged in a hierarchical order starting from the lowest which is the physiological to the highest i.e. self actualization needs”. A... [continues]
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