1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Of all the factors of production, labour is the most important factor of production, which is supplied by the employees. The success or failure of any enterprise is therefore ultimately predicated on the willingness or otherwise of the people who supply the labour Force. A manager plays an important part in coordinating the efforts of individual workers to active organizational objectives. His work also include planning, organizing, leading, directing and supervising workers so that they can willingly, and happily contribute their best to the accomplishment and attainment of corporate objectives. It is pertinent to acknowledge the fact that people are unique because they have different needs, different ambitions, different attitudes and desires, different levels of knowledge and skills as well as different potentials. A manager should recognize these differences and devise different motivational programmes to meet individual needs. If an individual’s need is satisfied he will be motivated to produce more – All motivational programmes try to create conditions that encourage workers to satisfy their needs on one hand and to accomplish the organisation’s objectives on the other hand. Motivation is therefore seen worldwide as an inevitable panacea for increase productivity not only in the industrial or social setting but also in the institutions of higher learning. Psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist and management experts have propounded relevant theories buttressing the significance of motivation. Abraham Maslow (1954)1 in his hierarchy of needs theory opinion, “that an individual have five basic categories of needs that motivate him to action. These comprise physiological, safety, social ego and self-actualization of needs. These needs are arranged in a hierarchical order starting from the lowest which is the physiological to the highest i.e. self actualization needs”. A need once satisfied ceases to motivate while those not yet satisfied energies or motivate behaviour. Maslow therefore believes that motivated behaviour is goal directed, sustained, and consequently results from internal drives or needs that gear a person into action. If motivated, behaviour results from felt needs, then invariably, the manager wishes to motivate behaviour must be sensitive to those operatives needs and desires his subordinates feels or else he must take some steps to create a feeling of needs within his workers. According to Ubeku (1975)2, “it used to be thought that a good and successful manager was the one who stood above his men and showered order on them to obey. A man who decides for his men not only what to do but how it should be done. They must conform otherwise they would either be disciplined or dismissed outright. He was the slave driver and bulldozer. He need not consult his men as they had no ideas to put forward. He knew what was good for them and did it”. There is no doubt that a measure of strictness is necessary indeed essential, but gone are the days of rigid control and direction. The relationship are becoming more impersonal to get people to work effectively in these changed circumstances a different approach is necessary. Management that is determined and wiling to maintain its good image and status must focus on plans and strategies that will enable it achieve its set objectives. When there is harmony in an organisation it reveals that workers satisfied and are happy with their jobs. Such workers will certainly show their energies, efforts, wisdom, intelligence etc to assist management in achieving its objectives increase productivity, efficiency and maximize profit. Moreover, knowledge about motivational practices can have implications for understanding employee’s behaviour that are important for the academician, managers in the organization.
The problems of employees motivation in organization has been...