Emperor K'Ang-Hsi

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Emperor K'ang-hsi ruled China from 1661 to 1722 and his reign is captured by

Jonathan D. Spence's book Emperor of China. The different chapters of the book deal

with certain aspects of the Emperors life. Aspects that the history books to normally deal

with. The information in Spence's book is based on Emperor K'ang-hsi's

correspondence, his own writings. This writing maybe biased towards himself, but no

other piece of information could provide insight into his mind. The book is divided into

six parts; In motion, Ruling, Thinking, Growing Old, Sons, Valedictory. The book

follows Emperor K'ang-hsi's life as Emperor in chronological order.

In the first part, "In Motion," the main emphasis was on Emperor K'ang-hsi travels

though his kingdom. He wrote a letter to Ku Wen-hsing stating that he had traveled

1000's of miles in each direction. He had traveled to the provinces of Shansi and Shensi in

the west, to the provinces of Manchuria and Ula in the east, north across the Gobi to the

Kerulean River and south to the Yangtze River. On his travels, Emperor K'ang-hsi, liked

to collect and compare different plats, animals, birds that he came across. He loved to

hunt with bows and guns during his travels. Emperor K'ang-hsi hunting practices were

not just meant for joy and exercise, it was also an exercise in military preparedness. He

took thousands of his troops on many of his trips to train them in shooting, camp life, and

formation riding.

The second part of the book emphasis on the historiographically part of the

emperors rule. The authors' facts were based on the thousands of imperial documents that

came from the emperor. The author was able to piece together the kind to government

that existed. The central bureaucracy of emperor K'ang-hsi's China was composed of a

metropolitan division and a provincial division. The metropolitan division was supervised

by four to six Grand Secretaries and were directed by the presidents and vice-presidents of

the Six Boards. The provinces were divided into six province blocks, controlled by s

governor-general. Each province was divided into prefectures and each prefecture was

subdivided into counties controlled by a magistrate. Ruling to Emperor K'ang-hsi meant

he had compete control for his economical and educational structure. He also felt that he

was responsible for the life and death of subjects.

The third part of the book is "Thinking," that deals with Emperor K'ang-hsi

perspective on his life and of his subjects. Emperor K'ang-hsi believed in Neo-

Confucianism and often refereed to it as the Confucian Classic. In different parts of the

Emperors life he was interested in geometry, astronomy, cartography, medicine, and math.

He took advantage in the free time a ruler has to expand his mind.

The section "Growing Old" showed that Emperor K'ang-hsi recognized that the

human body was fallible. He tried to prolong his life with an awareness into his diet,

medicine and memory. He tried to obtain public sympathy with his openness towards his

health, thus gaining the there trust and support in hard times. K'ang-hsi recognized that

admission to his physical weakness was the ultimate honestly but preventing physical

weakness was the ultimate common sense. Practicing medicine under Emperor K'ang-hsi

was a highly specialized practice. He had large groups of men for diagnosis and

treatment. In the end, K'ang-hsi knew that death was enviable, but he tried to live forever

though his children. K'ang-hsi had fifty-six children in his life time, but only one was born

to his first wife. This son was to be raised as the heir to the throne, he received the most

care and love that the Emperor could give.

From an early age, K'ang-hsi eldest son knew he would inherit the throne. Many

officials also...
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