Emotion and Motivation

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AP Psychology Niland

Notes on Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 9 Essential Questions: • In what ways are humans motivated to behave? • What methods of motivation are more effective than others? • How can one increase their motivation to behave in various ways? • What is the role of hunger in motivating behavior? • How do maladaptive eating patterns affect behavior? • What role do emotions play in behavior? • How do cognitions affect emotions? • How does stress influence health and behavior? • How can people reduce stress? • In what ways can stress be beneficial? • How do social factors affect the influence of stress on health and behavior? Unit Objectives Discuss the similarities of instinct and drive theories. Discuss the difference between drive theory and homeostasis. Explain the reasons why intrinsic motivation is more beneficial than extrinsic motivation. Determine how psychologists measure achievement motivation. Identify ways we can motivate others to give their best efforts. Analyze how the body regulates weight so effectively. Differentiate between historical and modern cognitive theories of emotion. Identify the physiological changes that occur when people experience different emotions. Determine the criteria for assessing gender differences in emotional expression. Define stress, identifying the emotional and physiological responses to stress. Evaluate how outlook and feelings of control influence health. Evaluate how social support and positive emotional experiences contribute to health and well being.

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I. Motivation A. Motivation – the process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior. 1. interplay between nature (the physiological” push”) and nurture (the cognitive and cultural “pull”) B. Theories of Motivation – 1. Evolutionary Theories (biological)– a. Instincts – fixed, inborn patterns of response that are not learned and that are specific to members of a particular species. 1. ex. Imprinting in birds and return of salmon to their birthplace 2. an infant’s rooting and sucking reflexes b. Instinctive Theory – the belief that behavior is motivated by instinct 1. instinct theory fails to explain human motives 2. most psychologists agree that human behavior is directed by physiological needs and psychological wants 3. psychologists are interested in how genes predispose behavior and how evolution might influence phobias, helping behaviors, and romantic attractions c. “Gene Knockout Experiments” – researches disable specific genes then examine the resulting effect on motivation. d. In twin and adoptee studies, researchers examine how strong heredity accounts for differences in motivated behavior, such as the tendencies to be outgoing or anti-social.

Chapter 9 – Motivation and Emotion

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AP Psychology Niland

Notes on Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 9 2. Drive Theory (Clark Hull) – a. the belief that behavior is motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction Need (for food, water) → Drive (hunger, thirst) → Drive-Reducing Behavior (eating, drinking)

1. need – is a state of deprivation or deficiency 2. drive – a state of bodily tension, such as hunger or thirst, that arises from biological needs that demand satisfaction 3. homeostasis – a tendency to maintain a balanced or consistent internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level 4. drive reduction theory – the idea that a physiological need crates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need 5. incentive – a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior 6. primary drives – innate drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desire, that arise from basic biological needs 7. secondary drives – drives that are learned or acquired through experience, such as the drive to achieve monetary wealth 8. when there is both a...
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