Egg Structure & Its Uses in Bakery

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Egg Structure & Its Uses In Bakery
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“Submitted in fulfilment of the required for B.A (Hons.) In Culinary Arts”

University Of Huddersfield

Acknowledgement
I would like to acknowledge and extend by heartfelt gratitude to Chef Anand Marwad and Anant Bhamkar for giving me this project. It has helped me a lot in gaining more knowledge about the given topic [Egg structure and its uses in bakery]. I would also like to thank all my friends who have helped me in collecting the topics for this project.

Introduction
Eggs are the backbone of many baked goods and contributes to its structure. Egg’s cooking properties are so varied that eggs have been called “the cement that holds the castle of cuisine together.” Egg also provide steam for leavening or moisture for starch. Egg yolk adds moisturizing fats and helps emulsify the batter, giving the baked good a smooth and creamy texture. The egg whites acts as strengtheners. The eggs used in bakery mainly comes from hens. A healthy hen/chicken will lay one egg a day and this will largely depend upon it’s diet and the time of the day, as sunlight affects the production of eggs. The size of the egg also depends on the chickens age; older the hen larger the egg An egg is a rich source of proteins as it has two types of proteins; egg white contains ‘albumen’ and the yolk contains ‘lecithin’.

Structure of an Egg
A whole egg contains a yolk and a white that are encased in a shell. THE SHELL
It is the outer covering of the egg and is composed of calcium carbonate. It may be white or brown depending upon the breed of the chicken. The colour of the shell does not affect cooking quality, character or nutrition. EGG YOLK

It is the yolk or yellow portion which is responsible for the egg's emulsifying properties from the fat and lecithin contained in them. Both contribute to the fine texture of baked goods and which bring the water and fat phases together in a recipe for a creamier, smoother texture. This is important when baking and making creamy sauces. The yolk also contains a little less than half of the protein. Colour of yolk varies with feed of the hen, but does not indicate the nutritional content. With the exception or riboflavin and niacin, the yolk contains a higher proportion of the eggs vitamins than the white. The yolk of a large egg contains about 59calories. The downside is it contains 213mg of cholesterol. The yolk is held together, as there is a clean seal present, which is called as VITELLINE. Egg Yolk’s Structure:

* 1/2 water |
* 1/6 protein |
* 1/3 fat |
* emulsifiers (lecithin) |
* All of the egg's vitamins A, D and E are in the yolk. Egg yolks are one of the few foods naturally containing vitamin D. The yolk also contains more phosphorus, manganese, iron, iodine, copper, and calcium than the white, and it contains all of the zinc. |

EGG WHITES
These are also known as Albumen. It accounts for most of an egg’s liquid weight, about 67%. Albumen is more opalescent than truly white. The cloudy appearance comes from carbon dioxide. As the egg ages, carbon dioxide escapes, so the albumen of older eggs is more transparent than that of fresher eggs. CHALAZE are twisted cordlike strands of the egg white, that anchor thet yolk in the centre of the egg. Prominent chalaze indicates higher quality. There are two types of albumen:

* Thin Albumen – It is nearest to the shell. When the egg is broke there will be a clear demarcation of the thin and the thick albumen. As the egg get older the two albumens tend to mix up into one-another. * Thick Albumen – It stands high (closer to the yolk) and spreads less than thin white in a high quality egg. It is an excellent source of riboflavin and protein. Egg White Structure:

* 7/8 water |
* 1/8 protein  |
* 0 fat |
* niacin, riboflavin, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium and sulphur.SHELL MEMBRANETwo shell membranes, inner and outer membrane,...
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