THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTIONS
Black’s Law Dictionary defines a Constitution as “The fundamental and organic law of a nation or state that establishes the institutions and apparatus of government, defines the scope of governmental sovereign powers, and guarantees individual civil rights and civil liberties.” The present Constitution of the Philippines:
The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: approved by the 1986 Constitutional Commission on October 12, 1986; presented to President Corazon C. Aquino on October 15, 1986; ratified on February 2, 1987 by plebiscite; proclaimed in force on February 11, 1987. Past constitutions of the Philippines:
The 1986 Freedom Constitution : promulgated by Presidential Proclamation, March 25, 1986. The 1973 Constitution : as Amended in October 16-17, 1976, on January 30, 1980, and April 7, 1981. The 1973 Constitution : draft presented to President Marcos by the 1971 Constitutional Convention on December 1, 1972; deemed ratified by Citizens’ Assemblies held from January 10-15, 1973, proclaimed in force by Proclamation by President Marcos, January 17, 1973. The 1943 Constitution : as approved by the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence, September 4, 1943 and ratified by the KALIBAPI Convention, September 7, 1943. The 1935 Constitution : as amended on June 18, 1940, and on March 11, 1947. The 1935 Constitution : as approved by the 1934 Constitutional Convention on February 8, 1935, certified by the President of the United States on March 25, 1935, and ratified by plebiscite on May 14, 1935. The Jones Law of 1916 : enacted into law by the United States Congress on August 29, 1916. The Philippine Organic Act of 1902 : enacted into law by the United States Congress on July 1, 1902 The 1899 Malolos Constitution : approved by the Malolos Congress on November 29, 1898, draft returned by President Aguinaldo on December 1, 1898 for amendments, which the Congress refused; approved by President Aguinaldo on December 23, 1898; formally adopted by the Malolos Congress on January 20, 1899, promulgated by President Emilio Aguinaldo on January 21, 1899.
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino: Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas) is the supreme law of the Philippines. The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon C. Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution". Philippineconstitutional law experts recognise three other previous constitutions as having effectively governed the country — the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution, the 1973 Constitution, and the 1986 Freedom Constitution. Constitutions for the Philippines were also drafted and adopted during the short-lived governments of Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo (1898) and José P. Laurel (1943). Background of the 1987 Constitution
In 1986, following the People Power Revolution which ousted Ferdinand E. Marcos as president, and following on her own inauguration, Corazon C. Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3, declaring a national policy to implement the reforms mandated by the people, protecting their basic rights, adopting a provisional constitution, and providing for an orderly transition to a government under a new constitution.President Aquino later issued Proclamation No. 9, creating a Constitutional Commission (popularly abbreviated "Con Com" in the Philippines) to frame a new constitution to replace the 1973 Constitution which took effect during the Marcos martial law regime. Aquino appointed 50 members to the Commission. The members of the Commission were drawn from varied backgrounds, including several former congressmen, a former Supreme Court Chief Justice (Roberto Concepción), a Catholic bishop(Teodoro Bacani) and film director (Lino Brocka). Aquino also deliberately appointed 5 members, including former Labor Minister Blas Ople, who had been allied with Marcos until the latter's ouster. After the Commission...
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