Evaluation of Literature and Evidence Synthesis
Multiple health benefits accrue when children are physically active. School administrators have shifted their focus away from physical education (PE) in schools to increased focus on standardized test score and the children are suffering. This systematic review was implemented to examine the positive or negative effects of physical education on academic achievement and self esteem. Varieties of study designs were used. Out of the 9 articles included, three were systematic reviews (Donnelly & Lambourne 2011; Rasberry et al. 2011; Strong et al. 2005) which included randomized control trials and others used expert panelist to review the validity of the data. The other six designs ranged from high quality to low quality designs which lacked organization and control. Some utilized control groups while others did not, nor was the validity of the data always addressed. All 9 articles addressed the PICO question at large but further research needs to be conducted to better understand the relationship with structured PE, academic achievement and self esteem. The PICO question was addressed but the samples were not well diverse, most were upper to middle class which is not representative of the diverse economic backgrounds nationally. However, the retrospective longitudinal study (Carlson et al. 2008) noted cluster sampling was used to select a nationally representative sample of students in kindergarten. This was only a representative of kindergarten not the vast ages of the other student in the review. Sample sized ranged from 134 students to (Carlson et al. 2008) study which studied 5,316 kindergarten students. None of the articles or studies addressed doing a power analysis to obtain sample size. Diverse ranges of variables were utilized in the studies which make it difficult to find a clear correlation between physical education and academic achievement. Some studies used amount of time spent doing physical...
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