EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Aneeza Bashir University of Sargodha Najma Iqbal Malik University of Sargodha firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to find out the effects of advertisement on consumer behavior of university students (N = 150). A self-explanatory questionnaire was used to measure the effects of advertisement. The sample was comprised of university students (University of Sargodha). Their age (18 – 24) was constant. Six brands were decided to be used as FMCG’s unit and inquiries were made with relevance to their advertisements. For results formulation chi-square, frequency and binomial test analysis were used and presented in tabular, bar graph, and pie chart form. The results revealed that advertisement persuades the consumer to at least buy the product once in a lifetime. Personality used in commercial influenced the consumers more as compare to keyword / caption. Results also revealed that consumers considered advertisement as a reliable source of knowledge as compare to others (friend, neighbors, reference group) opinions. Advertisement can effect any income group, but expensive product and repetition of advertisement did not effect the purchasing attitude. The most preferred brand was Lux and second preferred brand was Safeguard. Consumers were influenced by the appeal and personality used in the specific brand advertisements. -----------------Advertising is almost everywhere in our daily life. Its forms and roles are both contested and admired. Some see advertising both as the mirror and the maker of culture. Even when advertisements contribute new sounds and the symbols that shape feature, its words and images reflect the present and the past. Others say advertising is purely an economic activity with one purpose i.e., to sell. Many advertisers and agencies believe that advertising creates “magic in the market place” (Russell & Lane, 1996). It is evident from definitions of advertisement that with the change in times there have been changes in the way advertising is perceived. However, in spite of all these changes advertising has always been a very strong institution, which has continued to influence our lives since the beginning of time (Wright, Warner & Winter 1971; Wells, Burnett & Moriarty 1995; Jugneheimer & White, 1980). So advertising is a way of gaining sales effectiveness and of keeping selling expenses low. Advertiser wants to be certain that he, his store, and his product are identified in the advertisement and he is gaining benefit from it, even when he cannot be there to deliver the massage in person. And also because the advertisement must be carried by newspapers or magazines or television or radio or billboards, or by some other mass medium. The advertiser must pay the owner of those media for the space or time he used for the advertisement. (Jugneheimer & White, 1980) Advertisement has changed its form from town criers of medieval time to the internet and electronic advertisement of 20th century (David, 2001). The technique based on “hierarchy of effects” suggests that there are casual relationship between changes in person’s attitude about a product and person’s attitude to
buy that product . The models of advertising suggest that to be effective, any piece of persuasive communication must carry its audience through a series of stages, each stage being dependent on the success on previous stage (Wilmshurst, 1985; Lavidge & Steiner, 1961; Leckenby, 1976; Colley, 1961). The theoretical formulations of the advertising, process into four groupings. These four theoretical divisions are the pressure-response theories, the active learning theories; the low-involvement theories; and the dissonance reduction theories (Tellis, 2004; Fine, 1992; Krugman, 1965; as cited in Nazir, 2001 ). Advertising is complex because many different advertisers try to reach many...