Effectivity of Anti Smoking Campaign in the Philippines

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INRODUCTION
Smoking is the inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. Casual smoking is the act of smoking only occasionally, usually in a social situation or to relieve stress. Many health experts now regard habitual smoking as a psychological addiction, two and one with serious consequences.[1] It is the practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burned and the smoke tasted or inhaled.[2] This is primarily practiced as a route for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs which is nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment. The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. It has been suggested that related disease kills one half of long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that about 4.9 million people worldwide each year die as a result of smoking.

Locally, there have been efforts by the government to regulate the consumption of cigarettes which is manifested in different city ordinances and Republic Act 9211-Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003.[3]

HISTORY OF SMOKING
The history of smoking can be dated as early as 5000 B.C, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking involved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow shamans and priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americans, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world. In religions like India and Sub-Saharan Africa, It merged with existing practices of smoking (mostly cannabis).[4]

TYPES OF SMOKER
There are few types of smokers based on cigarettes consumed per day. The standards for classifying smokers based on consumption are dependent on the society. A standard used in the Philippines is different from the standard used in Taiwan. There is no exact quantity of cigarette consumption “a heavy smoker” smokes on a daily basis, only estimates. * Chain smoker – non-stop smoker who lights his next cigarette with what the cigarette he is presently smoking. (more than 3 packs per day) * Heavy smoker – someone who can consume about 2-3 packs per day. * Moderate – smokes between 1-2 packs per day.

* Light smoker – smokes ½ to 1 pack per day.
* Casual smoker – smokes only to socialize with friends.[5]

LITERATURE REVIEW
HEALTH HAZARDS OF SMOKING
Smoking causes serious health issues not only to the person smoking but also those exposed to the second hand smoke. An example of a serious health risk is lung cancer, the most common form of cancer diagnosed. It accounts for 14% of all cancers and 28% of all cancers deaths. According to the American Lung Association, “cigarette smoking is responsible for an estimated 87% of lung cancer deaths, or seven out of eight”. Lung cancer develops when cells in the lungs multiply in an uncontrollable rate. These abnormal tissue masses are called tumors. Lung cancer is not only a risk for the smoker, but it is also a risk for the non-smoker alike. Second-hand smoke comes from two places: smokes breathed out from the person smoking, and smoke from the end of a burning cigarette (American Lung Association). The American Lung Association goes on say, “Second-hand Smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals; 200 poisons; 43 cause cancer’’. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Second-hand Smoke has been classified as a known cause of cancer in humans’’. Another example of health risks originating from smoking is emphysema. The lung Association states, “When you have emphysema, some of the air sacs deep in your...
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