Effective Parenting Styles
Many studies based on parenting styles have shown three general types of parents: permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. Permissive parents often have few rules, or are inconsistent with their rules with little or no discipline. Often they use rewards like snacks or toys to get their children to behave. Kids with permissive parents are more likely to exhibit psychological problems like anxiety and depression and are the second most likely after children with authoritarian parents to commit violence(Steinberg 1994). Permissive parenting is also linked to substance abuse and delinquency. Authoritarian parents are very strict with discipline and often have non-negotiable rules. These types of parents instruct the child and do not consider the child’s opinion. This type of parenting causes serious developmental issues. Children with authoritarian parents learn not to discuss issues with their parents and as a result are often greatly influenced by peers. These same children also lack social competence and show less intellectual curiosity. Boys from this category also show the highest level of violence. Authoritative parents are very warm and close with their children, but discipline them and are consistent with punishment. They are more open with their kids and will talk and are willing to bend the rules for good reasons. Research shows that these children are less influenced by negative peer pressure and dicks develop more successful peer relationships. These children are more likely to develop high self-esteem, positive self concept, greater self-worth, and are generally more successful. Because the authoritative parenting style provides a balance between control and independence, it produces competent, socially responsible, self-assured, and independent children(Gonzalez-Mena 1993).
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