HOW THE EDUCTION SYSTEM AND THE FAMILY COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER’S ROLES IN LEARNING THE DOMINANT CULTURE.
Humans are born without culture, parents, teachers, and others inculcate and prepare these infants and adults to function in social life. This process of acquiring culture and social well-being referred to as socialization is thus the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained. Generally, socialization is into two categories primary and secondary socializations. Primary socialization typically begins at birth and moves forward until the beginning of the school years. Facilitated mostly by the family and to a certain degree various forms of media it includes all the ways the newborn is molded into a social being, capable of interacting in and meeting the expectations of society (Hammond, 2009). Particularly the family is “a basic social group united through bonds of kinship or marriage, present in all societies; ideally [it] provides [its] members with protection, companionship, security, and socialization.” However, the structure of the family and the needs that the family fulfills vary from society to society. (Harper, 2008) Secondary socialization on the other hand is as Blanca and Williams (2012:57) wrote; socialization that takes place throughout one's life, both as a child and as one encounters new groups that require additional socialization. It is thus the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society outside the home. In this Essay, three examples showing how the education system and the family; agencies of the socialization process complement each other’s roles in the life-long process of learning the dominant culture will be presented. In addition, I will identify and explain three limitations the family faces in relation to providing specific aspects of primary socialization, roles that the school then adopts. Human beings especially Children learn culture in two major contexts; their families and the formal School programme. Parents, as the child’s first teacher begin the lifelong process of defining the child’s gender, teaching appropriate roles associated with being male or female, establishing the roots of a child’s culture and teaching the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a that particular culture. Girls, for example are taught "cultural norms and occupational roles that their society has in store for them" (O'Neil, 2011). Norms being conceptions of appropriate and expected behavior that are held by most members of the society. Thus girls learn how to fulfill their role in society as they learn to be daughters, sisters, friends, wives, and mothers. Complementally, the education system, a system of formal teaching and learning as conducted through schools and other institutions, in levels that can go from preschools to colleges and universities builds on the child’s culture through literacy and teaches how to act in a way that is appropriate for the situations they are in, equipping them with specialized knowledge and skills. Thus, the education system enlarges learners’ social world to include people with backgrounds different from their own, teaching them a wide range of knowledge and skills that are not offered by the family. For instance, it initiates them in subjects such as mathematics, languages and science (Schools' main function), also nurturing within them the value of teamwork, punctuality and following a set schedule (latent function) aspects of the hidden curriculum. As it stresses lessons on discipline in doing one's day-to-day activities it fosters the values of national pride and citizenship in the children for example as Baxamusa (2012) outlines; "Patriotism, Democracy, Justice, honesty, and competition" A very good example of education system nurturing such values, is in the United States, where School children take the Pledge of Allegiance at the beginning of each school day, and before some public events, such as...
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