Education Philosophy in Malaysia

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Understanding of the Educational Philosophy
The philosophy of education can be referred as the academic field of applied philosophy, or referred to one of the educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education which examines the definition, goals, and the meaning of education. As an academic field, its central subject is education and its method is those of philosophy. Which is it is either the process of education, or the discipline of the education. Part of the discipline may be concerned with aims, forms, methods or results of the process of educating. Or it may concerns with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline. Example, it might study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice. An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Philosophy of education is usually housed in departments or colleges of education. The multiple ways of conceiving education together with the multiple fields and approaches of philosophy make philosophy of education not only a very diverse field but also one that is not easily defined. Philosophy education is the practice of teaching and learning philosophy as well as the research about it. However, no formal criteria for when educational programs and scholarly journals form an academic discipline. An educational philosophy is a normative (relating to an ideal standard or mode) theory of education that unifies pedagogy, curriculum, learning theory, and the purpose of education and is grounded in specific metaphysical, epistemological, and axiological assumptions. "Learning Theories" are elaborate hypotheses that describe how exactly the procedure occurs. Learning theories have two chief values according to Hill (2002). One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. Pedagogy here means by the study of being a teacher, or the process of teaching. It is also referred to as the correct use of instructive strategies. Related with those instructive strategies, the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. Education means by the aims, and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. It occurs through any experiences that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Narrowing the meaning is the formal process by which society transmits its knowledge, skills, customs, and values from one generation to the other. The system of educations, started with schooling phases from preschools, primary and secondary schools and continues to higher education such as university systems, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, and adult education depending on the cognitive value of every person.

Towards the Formation of National Philosophy of Education
During the British colonization, no clear policy on education was put. Found that there are Four types of vernacular schools – English-Medium, Malay-Medium, Chinese-Medium, and Tamil-Medium. The English-medium schools were run by missionaries and the British government. The oldest school in Malaysia is the Penang Free School (1816). The...
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