STUDENT NO:3475 9662
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
Table of ContentsPage
2. Multiple Intelligence Theory2
3. Summary of the Multiple Intelligences2
4. Multiple Intelligences in the classroom6
1. Applying four of the intelligences in the classroom6
Various theories have been developed over the years to measure and explain intelligence. Yet, still no single definition exists. Intelligence has always been regarded as an independent and purely intellectual ability. This view has changed to that of regarding multiple intelligences as characteristics of a person as a whole (Jordaan & Jordaan 1998:428). It is of the utmost importance that all educators are familiar with the theory of multiple intelligences. Not only will it create a stimulating and nurturing learning environment to all learners but it will also diminish labels and stereotypes about intelligence.
2. Multiple Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner developed a revolutionary viewpoint. In 1983 Gardner presented a Theory of Multiple Intelligences in his book Frames of Mind. According to him a person’s intellect does not depend on independent abilities working together to create a general intelligence. His theory distinguished seven distinct intelligences where each is a separate system of functioning. However, all intelligences work integrally to interact in academic and practical situations to produce intelligent performance (Sternberg 2006:507).
The different intelligences are like languages (metaphorically) that learners speak and are taught by their own culture. They are tools for learning, problem-solving, and creating that all learners can be taught to use effectively for an optimal learning experience.
3. Summary of the Multiple Intelligences
• Linguistic / Verbal Intelligence
Verbal intelligence is the ability to use words effectively and to manipulate the structure of language in practical uses. Skills include understanding language semantics, meanings and structure of language. Learners enjoy talking about issues and are able to think in words. They spend a lot of time reading, writing and talking (Nieman & Monyai 2008:86). These learners are good at presenting an oral and taking part in debates or dialogues. Learners with strong verbal intelligence like to play word games, read poems and keep journals.
Poets, authors and attorneys exhibit strong linguistic intelligence.
An example of this is T S Eliot, who created a magazine in three days at the age of only ten (Jordaan et al 1998:432). Other examples are T.S. Elliot, Maya Angelou, and Martin Luther King Jr.
• Logical / Mathematical Intelligence
Mathematical intelligence refers to a learner’s ability to do things with data: collect, and organize, analyze and interpret, conclude and predict. Learners strong in this intelligence see patterns and relationships. Learners like to categorize, classify, testing hypothesis and calculate (Nieman et al 2008:86). They are oriented toward thinking: inductive and deductive logic, numeration, and abstract patterns. These learners like to experiment, play strategy games and to solve mathematical problems. Learners who are strong in this intelligence often show great scientific ability.
Inventors and scientists exhibit strong logical intelligence.
Exceptional cases include great inventors such as John Dewey, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein and Sephen Hawking (Jordaan et al1998:432).
• Visual / Spatial Intelligence
Strong spatial skills include the ability to perceive the spatial-visual world accurately and to organize it...