Student Number: 50317350
Unique assignment number: 891095
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. What is sustainable development 3. Deforestation 3.1 Deforestation and its influence on sustainable development (With a closer look on Iran) 3.2 Deforestation preventing, controlling or mitigating strategies
3 3 4
4. Soil Erosion
4.1 Soil erosion and its influence on sustainable development (With a closer look on Iran) 4.2 Pollution preventing, controlling or mitigating strategies
5.1 Pollution and its influence on sustainable development (With a closer look on Iran) 5.2 Pollution preventing, controlling or mitigating strategies
6. Conclusion 7. Bibliography
7 7 8
In the last century we have passed, our economy has led us to an edge regarding to our environmental and natural bounties. As the result of this crucial moment, human societies came to the conclusion that if they don’t do something urgently about this situation, they would probably lose everything they have gained so far. In 1987, United Nations invited world leaders and organize World Commission on Environment and Development which during it, they represent the concept of “Sustainable Development”. In this article, I am trying to represent this concept as well as deforestation, soil erosion and pollution production as some of the serious stumbling blocks which we are encountering with in our international effort to achieve sustainable development.
2. What is sustainable development
To start with this concept I prefer to define ecology in the first step since it is related to sustainable development. According to Ernst Haeckel “Ecology is the study of our physical environment; more precisely the study of distribution and abundance of organisms and also the relationships between these organisms with their physical environment (Cary Institute:1). Human society as part of this planet has an influence on its physical and biological components. So As Cornwell and De Beer (2004:80) pointed out, in studying issues regarding to environment, we should consider human society, its cultural, economic and political backgrounds as well as delicate interconnectedness between different organisms in the environment. This approach will help us to prevent one dimensional analysis and conclusion. According to Miller (2011:9), organisms and physical environment have provided us with ‘natural resources’ which consist of all materials and energy that is vital for our survival and ‘natural services’ which are functions of nature that support our lives and economies such as nutrient cycling. These natural resources and natural services make up our natural capital. During the last century our economy has bloomed by ravaging this capital; but if we continue with this trend, the degraded environment begins to feedback on economic wealth and the result is not only declining our economy but also losing our environmental resources. So managing this capital as the foundation and provider of material and energy for our development has become one of the challenges of this century. To deal with this dilemma, international organizations and scientist have presented a new term in development which is regarded as “Sustainable Development”. According to 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, sustainable development is defined as a kind of “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Regan 2006: 64).
In other words it is a kind of development which allows us to use natural resources and benefit from natural services in a protectable and manageable way without depleting and degrading the natural capital itself. It doesn’t involve rescuing nature from environmental disasters but it involves long-term planning to prevent any...