TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES PREFACE
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PAPER
Sustainable development means that the needs of the present generation should be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is the key to preventing or reducing the effect of environmental issues. Environmental sustainability is the process of making sure current processes of interaction with the environment are pursued with the idea of keeping the environment as pristine as naturally possible based on ideal-seeking behavior. Ecosystems are dynamic interactions between plants, animals, and microorganisms and their environment working together as a functional unit. Ecosystems will fail if they do not remain in balance. No community can carry more organisms than its food, water, and shelter can accommodate. Food and territory are often balanced by natural phenomena such as fire, disease, and the number of predators. Each organism has its own niche, or role, to play. The environment of our planet is degrading at an alarming rate because of non-sustainable urbanization, industrialization and agriculture. Our air, water, land and food are polluted. Pollution rate has exceeded the manageable capacity of nature at many places. Almost 50% of the land is eroded and robbed of its fertility. The extent of damage done to the world’s biological diversity and ecosystem cannot be assessed. Our renewable and non-renewable resources are being alarmingly exhausted due to increasing population pressure posing difficulty to manage threat to future generation. Environmental issues are receiving utmost attention and have been debated at various international forums e.g. the first Earth Summit held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 1972; the second one in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. The European Council in Göteborg (2001) adopted the first EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS). This was complemented by an external dimension in 2002 by the European Council in Barcelona in view of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (2002), the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols etc. The European Council of June 2006 adopted an ambitious and comprehensive renewed Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) for an enlarged EU. The European Commission adopted in October 2007 the first progress report on the Sustainable Development Strategy and in July 2009 reviews of EU SDS. Declarations of far reaching consequences were made at these summits. But current approaches in environmental protection have shifted from the end of pipe mitigation to zero emission strategies and to 3 R’s: reduce, reuse and recycle waste. Every nation desires economic growth, and at the same time it craves for eco-conservation and sustainable development. Administrative authorities are required to frame plans, programs and policies for a better scientific and technological development of production, distribution and consumption processes with sustainability. Green technology concepts are emerging as the future strategy for environmental management. It has become a challenge for scientists to devise remedial measures to control pollution levels and safeguard the future.
The next decade will determine whether and how we meet global challenges. Mankind is con-fronted with a challenge of an unprecedented extent posed by climate change and water shortage, the threat to biodiversity, soil degradation and shortage of resources and energy. If the quality of life shall be maintained in industrialized countries and be improved in developing and newly industrialized countries, we must find ways to achieve apparently opposed goals: it is imperative to secure prosperity, to enable development...
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